They are rapidly switching back and forth between the supply rails, being fed by a modulator using pulse width, pulse density, or related techniques to encode the audio input into a pulse train
. The audio escapes through a simple low-pass filter into the loudspeaker.
Each measurement from the pulse train
reflected from the scene is completed in 20ns.
Siglent SSG3000X RF signal generators have a frequency range of 9kHz to 2.1GHz or3.2GHz and provide common signal-generation needs such as sweep control and analog modulations (AM, FM, PM), as well as pulse modulation and pulse train
First, we considered a pulse train
signal with a period of 20 s and a duty cycle of 20%.
In the booster converter, the formation of a pulsewidth modulated pulse train
is performed by a control system, the functional circuit of which is shown in Fig.
This lab-built laser is operated at 10 Hz throughout the test, and it can be programmed to emit a predefined number of pulses (from 1 to 999,999) with preheating pulse train
(typically 30 pulses with 30 Hz and 100 [micro]s pulse width at operating voltage).
A soft magnet material in a core is magnetized in one direction if it is continuously driven by a unipolar pulse train
, as shown in Figure 3(a).
Figure 4(a) shows that the single pulse train
with a repetition rate of 13.14 MHz, which matches well with the cavity length, indicates that the laser operates in the mode-locking state.
Q-switched pulse train
was captured by a mid-infrared photodetector (VIGO system, PCI-9) and displayed on a digital oscillator, as shown in Figure 3(a).
A Class-D amplifier converts the analog audio signal into a modulated digital pulse train
that drives the speaker through a low-pass filter (LPF): the output of the LPF mirrors the audio input.
The rats were exposed to PEMF by applying a consecutive pulse train
at four different frequencies (1, 10, 20, and 40 Hz) in three series.