Darwinians have debated how continuous or how punctuated evolution
Some such view seems at least necessary to explain why punctuated evolution
In the natural world, punctuated evolution
occurs when small groups find them selves geographically isolated and free from natural predators, allowing creatures with rare mutations to thrive and develop into entirely new species.
security doctrine, and it might be naive to expect the Bush administration to understand Pyongyang's punctuated evolution
In 1972 this view was challenged by the American paleontologists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, who suggested what they called punctuated evolution
For punctuated evolution
, the increase is linear, up to an eventual fall-off imposed by the fact that I cannot exceed one ([ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 3A OMITTED]; Rogers  has also simulated this case, with identical results).
Lande (1985, 1986) described how a model of punctuated evolution
can be approximately derived by extending the above model of evolution under weak stabilizing selection with random genetic drift to a multipeaked adaptive landscape.
TIPS, Pearson product-moment correlation (= equilibrium approach); FL1G, Felsenstein's independent contrasts assuming gradual evolution (uses actual branch lengths); FLIP, Felsenstein's independent contrasts assuming punctuated evolution
(assumes all branch lengths are equal); ME1G, Minimum Evolution contrasts assuming gradual evolution (uses actual branch lengths); ME1P, Minimum Evolution contrasts assuming punctuated evolution
(assumes all branch lengths are equal).
Peak shifts have been widely recognized as microevolutionary processes that would generate the macroevolutionary pattern of punctuated evolution
(Charlesworth et al.