pupil

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pupil:

see eyeeye,
organ of vision and light perception. In humans the eye is of the camera type, with an iris diaphragm and variable focusing, or accommodation. Other types of eye are the simple eye, found in many invertebrates, and the compound eye, found in insects and many other
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.

Pupil

 

the opening in the iris through which light rays enter the eye.

The dimensions of the pupil change according to the amount of light present: the pupil dilates in darkness, under emotional excitement and painful sensations, or with the injection of atropine or adrenalin into the body; it contracts in bright light. Change in the dimensions of the pupil is regulated by fibers of the autonomic nervous system and is accomplished by means of two smooth muscles located in the iris—the sphincter, which contracts the pupil, and the dilator, which expands it. In higher vertebrates, changes in the dimensions of the pupil are produced reflexively by the effect of light on the retina of the eye; in lower vertebrates, these changes are produced by the direct action of light on contrac-tile formations in the pupil. The pupil is usually round or slitlike; in some fish (for example, in a number of sharks, rays, and flounder) and mammals (for example, in sperm whales and dolphins) a projection of the iris, suspended from the superior edge of the pupil, can cover the pupil completely in the presence of intense illumination. In man the pupil is round; its diameter may change from 1.1 mm to 8 mm. Changes in the shape, dimensions, and speed of reaction of the pupil (so-called pupillary reflexes) are of diagnostic significance in eye diseases.

O. G. STROEVA

pupil

[′pyü·pəl]
(anatomy)
The contractile opening in the iris of the vertebrate eye.

pupil

1
1. a student who is taught by a teacher, esp a young student
2. Civil and Scots law a boy under 14 or a girl under 12 who is in the care of a guardian

pupil

2
the dark circular aperture at the centre of the iris of the eye, through which light enters
References in periodicals archive ?
(42) One now in Cologne city library, having a Paris edition of the Pupilla oculi bound with it, belonged to the charterhouse there, besides two more in a later catalogue.
Smith ve ark., (14) glokom veya okuler hipertansiyon tanisi veya suphesi olan 38 hastada Stratus OKT ile RSLT kalinlik ve optik sinir basi olcumlerinde pupil capinin etkisini arastirdiklari calismada, pupilla dilatasyonu sonrasi sinyal gucunu istatiksel olarak daha yuksek bulduklarini belirtmislerdir.
Ameliyat asamasinda hicbir olguda pupilla dilatasyonu amaciyla iris retraksiyon hooklari uygulamasi gibi pupillaya yonelik bir islem yapilmadi.
Bir olguda on kamarada 1-2 mm hipopiyon mevcuttu ve ayni olguda pupilla alanini kaplayan membran gozlendi.
Bu hastalarda pupillanin zor buyumesi cerrahiyi daha da guclestireceginden, pupillayi maksimum derecede buyutmek icin gerekli tedbirler alinmalidir (ameliyatin basinda on kamaraya dilue adrenalin verilmesi, pupilla cengelleri vs.).
On segment muayenesinde bilateral diffuz konjonktival hiperemi, korneal odem, sig on kamara, pupillalar dilate ve pupilla reaksiyonlari negatif olarak saptandi.
Bir optik sistem pupilla santralinde refraktif kusur barindirmazken pupil merkezini cevreleyen dairesel zonlarda kusur artabilir.