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sea,

term used as synonymous with oceanocean,
interconnected mass of saltwater covering 70.78% of the surface of the earth, often called the world ocean. It is subdivided into four (or five) major units that are separated from each other in most cases by the continental masses. See also oceanography.
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, or a subdivision of an ocean (Caribbean Sea, Yellow Sea), or erroneously designating a large salt lakelake,
inland body of standing water occupying a hollow in the earth's surface. The study of lakes and other freshwater basins is known as limnology. Lakes are of particular importance since they act as catchment basins for close to 40% of the landscape, supply drinking water,
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 (Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, Aral Sea).

Sea

 

a part of the world’s oceans that is more or less set apart by land or elevations of the submarine terrain and primarily distinguished from the open ocean by hydrological, meteorological, and climatic conditions. The distinguishing characteristics of a sea result from its position on the margin of the ocean, which means that land has a significant influence on it, and from the limited connection with the open ocean, which is reflected primarily in slower water exchange. Thus, the more a sea is enclosed by land, the more it differs from the ocean. Some open parts of the ocean are arbitrarily called seas—for example, the Sargasso Sea in the northern Atlantic and the Philippine Sea in the western Pacific. Some lakes are called seas (for example, the Aral Sea and Dead Sea), and some seas are called gulfs or bays (Hudson Bay, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Persian Gulf). The diversity of characteristics associated with seas makes their classification very difficult. The most complex classifications belong to German scientists (Krummel [1878] and others); the most complete are the classifications of the Soviet oceanographers lu. M. Shokal’skii (1917), N. N. Zubov and A. V. Everling (1940), and A. M. Muromtsev (1951).

Seas are divided into three groups on the basis of their degree of isolation and their hydrological conditions: internal seas (inland and semienclosed seas), marginal seas, and interisland seas. Inland seas are sometimes divided according to geographical position into intercontinental and intracontinental seas. (See Table 1 for data on some major seas.)

From a geological point of view, the modern seas are young formations. All of them had been established in nearly their present-day outlines in Paleocene-Neocene times and took final shape in the Anthropogenic period. The deepest seas formed at the points of major faults in the earth’s crust (for example, the Mediterranean Sea). Shallow seas appeared when the waters of the ocean flooded the marginal parts of the continents as they subsided or the level of the ocean was uplifted; they are usually located on the continental shelf.

The climates of seas are distinguished by features of greater or lesser continentality, depending on the degree to which they are isolated by land. This is primarily reflected in the magnification of seasonal fluctuations in air and surface water temperature. Some seas are warmer than neighboring open parts of the ocean on the surface and at greater depths (for example, the Red Sea), whereas others are colder (the Sea of Okhotsk); this depends on geographic position. Seas have all the extreme values of salinity of the world’s oceans; in the open part of the Baltic Sea, salinity is only 6.0-8.0 parts per thousand ( whereas in the Red Sea it reaches 41.5׉. Water density in the seas also reaches extreme values, in conformity with the distribution of extreme values of temperature and salinity (density of 1.0100 g/cm3 in the Baltic Sea and 1.0287 g/cm3 in the Red Sea).

Cyclonic currents predominate in seas because of the prevalence of the cyclonic system of winds above the seas and the continental discharge, which is deflected in the corresponding direction by the force of the earth’s rotation.

The organic world of the seas differs from that of the open ocean in a larger percentage of forms not found in other regions (endemics) and often also in a relatively greater variety. Both phenomena are based on the isolation of the sea basins and the differences in conditions in comparatively limited spaces. An additional factor is differences in the geological history of the basins.

REFERENCES

Shokal’skii, lu. M. Okeanografiia, 2nd ed. Leninigrad, 1959.
Muromtsev, A. M. “Opyt raionirovaniia Mirovogo okeana.” Trudy Cos. okeanograficheskogo in-ta, 1951, no. 10.
Leonov, A. K. Regional’naia okeanografiia, part 1. Leningrad, 1960. More [collection]. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from French.)

A. M. MUROMTSEV

What does it mean when you dream about the sea?

See Ocean.

sea

[]
(geography)
A usually salty lake lacking an outlet to the ocean.
(oceanography)
A major subdivision of the ocean.
A heavy swell or ocean wave still under the influence of the wind that produced it.
(geography)

Sea

Season (See AUTUMN, SPRING, SUMMER, WINTER.)
Aegir
god of the seas. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 12]
Amphitrite
queen of the sea; Poseidon’s wife. [Gk. Myth.: NCE, 94]
Bowditch
standard navigational work, American Practical Navigator; so called from its compiler, Nathaniel Bowditch. [Am. Hist.: Hart, 97]
Clement the First, St.
drowned bound to anchor; invoked in marine dedications. [Christian Hagiog.: Attwater, 88]
Cuchulain
mad with grief, he battles the sea. [Irish Myth.: Benét, 239]
Dylan
god of waves, which continually mourn him. [Celtic Myth.: Leach, 332; Jobes, 480]
Jones, Davy
personification of the ocean. [Br. and Am. Marine Slang: Leach, 298]
Manannan
Irish god of the sea. [Irish Folklore: Briggs, 280]
mermaid
half-woman, half-fish; seen by sailors. [western Folklore: Misc.]
Nereids
fifty daughters of Nereus; attendants of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174]
Nereus
son of Oceanus; father of the Nereids. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 174; Gk. Lit.: Iliad]
Njorthr Scandinavian
god; protector of sailors and ships. [Norse Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 760]
Oceanids
three thousand daughters of Oceanus and Tethys. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 178]
Salacia
consort of Neptune and goddess of springs. [Rom. Myth.: Kravitz, 208]
Tethys
goddess-wife of Oceanus. [Gk. Myth.: Brewer Dictionary, 1070]
Thetis
sea deity and mother of Achilles. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 269; Gk. Lit.: Odyssey]
Tiamat
primeval sea represented as a dragon goddess, mother of all the gods. [Babylonian Myth.: Benét, 1007]
trident
three-pronged fork; attribute of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Hall, 309]
Triton
gigantic sea deity; son and messenger of Poseidon. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 277; Rom. Lit.: Aeneid]
Varuna
god over the waters. [Vedic Myth.: Leach, 1155]

sea

1. 
a. the mass of salt water on the earth's surface as differentiated from the land
b. (as modifier): sea air
2. 
a. one of the smaller areas of ocean
b. a large inland area of water
3. turbulence or swell, esp of considerable size
4. Astronomy any of many huge dry plains on the surface of the moon

SEA

C

(1) See coulomb.

(2) A high-level programming language developed at Bell Labs that is also able to manipulate the computer at a low level like assembly language. Developed in the 1970s, by the end of the 1980s, C became the language of choice for developing commercial software. There are C/C++ compilers for all major platforms. C, and its object-oriented successor C++, are used to write a huge variety of applications and many operating systems. In 1989, C was standardized by ANSI (X3J11 committee) and ISO.

C++ (C Plus Plus)
Created by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1983, C++ added object-oriented programming (OOP) to C. Originally called "C with Classes," C++ became the standard C language, often designated as C/C++. In contrast, Smalltalk and other object-oriented languages did not provide the familiar structures of conventional languages such as C and Pascal. See object-oriented programming, Smalltalk, Visual C++, Objective-C, C# and Managed C++.

Nothing But Functions
C and C++ are written as a series of functions that call each other for processing. Even the body of the program is a function named "main." Functions are very flexible, allowing programmers to choose from the standard library or write their own, which they do in every program. They can also use third-party libraries for specific purposes. See function.

Its Origin
C was developed to allow Unix to run on a variety of computers. After Bell Labs' Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie created Unix and got it running on several PDP computers, they wanted a way to easily port it to other machines without having to rewrite it from scratch. Thompson created the B language, which was a simpler version of the BCPL language, itself a version of CPL. Later, in order to improve B, Thompson and Ritchie created C.

The following examples convert Fahrenheit to centigrade in C and C++. For another example of C code, see event loop.

 In C

 main()   {
  float fahr;
  printf("Enter Fahrenheit: ");
  scanf("%f", &fahr);
  printf("Celsius is %f\n", (fahr-32)*5/9);
          }


 In C++

 void main() {
  float fahr;
  cout << "Enter Fahrenheit: "; 
  cin >> fahr;
  fahr = (((fahr-32)*5)/9);
  cout << "Celsius = " << fahr << endl;
  return 0;
             }

Sea

(dreams)
Waters generally symbolize the emotions and the unconscious. They could also represent the collective unconscious or your soul experiences. All dream interpretations depend on the individuals personal belief system and life experiences.
References in periodicals archive ?
Clearly seeing Franz Josef Land as "unfinished business," Leigh Smith put to sea from Peterhead on board Eira again on 14 June 1881.
He also saw the Economy preparing to put to sea on that fateful day 50 years ago.
As a precaution, Patriot surface-to-air missiles are being deployed in coastal regions of Akita and Iwate prefectures, north of Tokyo, while two Maritime Self-Defence Force destroyers are expected to put to sea from the naval base at Sasebo, near Nagasaki, in the near future and take up station in the Sea of Japan.
Pirates put to sea and sail towards their first adventures on this big ship.
A P&0 spokesman said it was hoped to put to sea this afternoon for further engine trials after the latest repairs had been completed, with Tuesday the favourite for departure.
Fishermen even escape a cut in the 15 days a month they are allowed to put to sea for cod - as long as they use nets with an agreed minimum mesh size to let the tiddlers through to boost stock revival.
GREENPEACE put to sea today to lead a flotilla of boats in the search of a radioactive shipment on its way to Sellafield.
The agency said mariners should resolve never to put to sea with a known or foreseeable machinery fault.
"The equipment stolen on this occasion assists in the training of crew members who put to sea in all conditions in an effort to save lives.
Its crew of 15 Filipinos and two Japanese was put to sea in a small raft about a week after the ship was taken and drifted at sea for 11 days before being rescued last week.
The former IRA man planted the bomb aboard their boat, the Shadow V, and detonated it after it had put to sea off Co Sligo in the Irish Republic.