basal ganglia

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Related to putamen: caudate nucleus

basal ganglia

[′bā·səl ′gaŋ·glē·ə]
(neuroscience)
The corpus striatum, or the corpus striatum and the thalamus considered together as the important subcortical centers.
References in periodicals archive ?
There were tau-positive neurons and tufted astrocytes in frontal, temporal, parietal, and motor cortex (Figure 12, E; positive with Gallyas stain in Figure 12, E, inset), nucleus basalis, caudate, putamen (Figure 12, F), globus pallidus, thalamus, subthalamic nucleus (Figure 12, G), and many brainstem nuclei.
Correlations of activity in the left CN and right and left putamen with age of onset had the same direction but did not reach significance.
The neuropathology of MSA is characterised by neuronal loss, gliosis, and myelin pathology in selective brain areas including the putamen, caudate nucleus, external pallidum, substantia nigra, locus caeruleus, inferior olive, pontine nuclei, Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, and intermediate cell columns of the spinal cord.
1987) reported above-normal GABA levels in the PD striatum, especially in the posterior putamen, which correlated inversely with reduced dopamine levels.
Extract putamen and caudate from both right and left striata.
Ponz suggests that increased activity in the putamen may explain why people with narcolepsy-cataplexy have a greater response to positive emotions.
The neuropathological findings differ, with PD mainly affecting the nigro-striatal pathways, whereas the distribution of degenerative changes in PSP is more widespread in the brain, with the variable involvement of the putamen, pallidum, pyramidal tract, brain stem, cerebellum and spinal cord.
This DAT PET PD pattern is distinctly different from the age-associated pattern of symmetric and evenly distributed mild loss of dopaminergic activity in the putamen and caudate nucleus [11].
Within the central nervous system, locations in the brain that are involved in the experience of pain include the thalamus, the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, the putamen, the prefrontal cortex, the premotor cortex, and the subcortex (Coghill, 1999).
Beyin manyetik rezonans goruntOlemede (MRG) pons orta bolOmOnde; yama tarzinda, Proton dansite (PD) ve T2 agirlikli serilerde hiperintens, bilateral putamen lokalizasyonunda; santrali T2 agirlikli serilerde belirgin hipointens, cevresi hiperintens, bilateral kaudat nOkleuslarda; T2 agirlikli serilerde hiperintens gorunumle karakterize lezyon alanlari izlendi (Resim 1).
A brain MRI demonstrated bilateral hyperintensity at the level of the caudate, putamen and pallidum, consistent with hypoxic injury (Figure 1).
They showed that the associative or medial striatum (similar to most of the caudate nucleus in primates) is critical for the early, goal-directed stage of action learning, whereas the sensorimotor or lateral striatum (similar to the putamen in primates) is more critical for the later, more habitual stage (see figure 1).