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see nephritisnephritis
, inflammation of the kidney. The earliest finding is within the renal capillaries (glomeruli); interstitial edema is typically followed by interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and a small number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an inflammation of the calyxes, pelvises, and parenchyma of the kidneys caused by the colon bacillus, staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus, and by other microorganisms. Primary, acute or chronic, and unilateral or bilateral forms of pyelonephritis are distinguished from secondary pyelonephritis, which is preceded by other diseases of the kidney and urinary tract. The morphologic changes associated with the disease take the form of clusters of cellular infiltrates. In chronic pyelonephritis, the kidney surface exhibits multiple cicatricial retractions. The cortical layer is thin and uneven.

Acute pyelonephritis often begins with fever, chills, and pain in the lumbar region. Urination is painful and frequent, and there may be headaches, nausea, and vomiting. Nitrogenous residues may increase in the blood in the early stages. The urine contains pus, red blood cells, albumin, and numerous bacteria, more than 100,000 per ml of urine. Treatment consists of antibacterial therapy with sulfanilamides, nitrofurans, and antibiotics. During the stage of fever, the intake of protein should be limited. Later the diet may be normal, with a copious intake of fluids, application of heat to the lumbar region, and antispasmodics.

The presence of chronic pyelonephritis is often revealed during urinalysis or the taking of blood pressure. The patient may complain of general weakness, headache, lack of appetite, pain in the lumbar region, and increased frequency of urination. The skin is pale and dry. The disease’s progress is bilateral. The urine’s specific gravity decreases and hypertension frequently develops, as does renal insufficiency. Diagnostic methods include urinalysis and examination of the renal functions, roentgenography, the use of radioisotopes, and occasionally biopsy of the kidneys. Treatment consists of prolonged antibacterial therapy with such drugs as nitrofurans, sulfanilamides, antibiotics, and NegGram. In the case of hypertension, hypotensive drugs are prescribed and the impaired urine flow is normalized. If such contraindications as renal insufficiency, obstruction of the urinary tract, and marked hypertension are absent, treatment in the Truskavets, Essentuki, Zheleznovodsk, or Sairme sanatoriums may be prescribed.


Pytel’, A. Ia., and S. D. Goligorskii. Pielonefrit. Moscow, 1961.
Ratner, N. A. Bolezni pochek i gipertoniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1971.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The disease process resulting from the effects of infections of the parenchyma and the pelvis of the kidney. Also known as interstitial nephritis.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the third stage, the values of WBC, neutrophil count, platelet, MPV, RDW, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatine, albumin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio parameters were compared in order to predict the risk of bacteremia and third stage intensive care unit (ICU) among patients with pyelonephritis and urosepsis.
Renal scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is the reference standard for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis and renal scars (7,8) and was a compulsory paraclinical examination, considering that until 2010 the treatment of patients with UTI was based on the second edition of the Evidence-based Pediatric Practice Guidelines.
Blood cultures may be required in case of suspected pyelonephritis with s/o sepsis or in case of diabetes mellitus.
Differential diagnoses other than xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis are malakoplakia and fat-containing tumors of the kidney and perirenal structures.
Despite a clinical presentation typical for pyelonephritis (high fever, flank pain, and costovertebral angle tenderness) and compatible imaging (computed tomography) and laboratory tests (high CRP), our patient was diagnosed with IgA nephropathy, confirmed by kidney biopsy.
Symptomatically, XGP usually presents with stigmata of chronic pyelonephritis including flank pain, fever, malaise, reduced appetite, and weight loss [13].
In this case, the source of the pleural effusion was determined to be xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP), making it the first reported case of urinothorax (UT) secondary to XGP.
The already established antibiotic therapy with Ciprofloxacin due to the initial obstructive pyelonephritis preoperatively was continued for another week.
Herein, we discuss the case of a woman affected by multidrug resistant Klebsiella induced ASB untreated in the antenatal period, leading to pyelonephritis and perinephric abscesses and concluding in radical nephrectomy in the postpartum period.
lower UTI or cystitis and upper UTI or Pyelonephritis. The symptoms of former are fever and painful micturation while for later it is fever, flank tenderness and pain.1