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(pĭr'ənŏm`ətər), actinometeractinometer
, instrument used to measure the heating power of radiation. Actinometers are used chiefly in meteorology to measure solar radiation as transmitted directly by the sun, scattered by the atmosphere, or reflected by the earth.
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 used to measure the total radiation incident on a surface.



an instrument for measuring the total and scattered solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface. To measure just scattered radiation, a screen is used to shade the instrument from direct sun rays.

Figure 1. lanishevskii pyranometer (external view)

In the USSR the pyranometer designed by lu. D. lanishevskii (see Figure 1) is extensively used. The radiation detector in a lanishevskii pyranometer is a thermopile consisting of series-connected manganin and constantan strips. The even-numbered junctions of the thermopile are covered with carbon black, and the odd-numbered with magnesia alba. Solar radiation is absorbed to a greater extent by the carbon black than by the magnesia. For this reason, a temperature difference arises between the junctions, and a thermoelectric current proportional to the incident radiation is generated. This current is measured by a galvanometer. A glass cap protects the thermopile from the effects of atmospheric infrared radiation, wind, and precipitation. In order to obtain the absolute values of the radiation, pyranometer is checked against an absolute pyrheliometer.


lanishevskii, lu. D. Aktinometricheskie pribory i melody nabliudenii. Leningrad, 1957.



An instrument used to measure the combined intensity of incoming direct solar radiation and diffuse sky radiation; compares heating produced by the radiation on blackened metal strips with that produced by an electric current. Also known as solarimeter.
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I = Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface through an hour which was available through the pyranometer measurement by Fars regional Meteorological Organization.
Vortsjarv we used a Yanishevsky pyranometer (Kondratyev, 1965) on a roof near the coastal station where the water samples were taken.
The incident, reflected and penetrating through the ice solar radiation were measured at the 'Solar radiation' station with a Star-shaped pyranometer (Theodor Friderich & Co, Meteorologische Gerate und Systeme, Germany) and a M-80m universal pyranometer produced in Russia.
Measurements of Global Radiation Constant (Intensity) at Awka, using Pyranometer, Nig.
The total solar radiation on a horizontal surface was recorded every 15 min using a CM3 (Soldata, Silkeborg, Denmark) pyranometer having a range of 0W/[m.
In Lake Vortsjarv we used a Yanishevsky pyranometer (Kondratyev, 1965) placed on the roof of a building very close to the coastal station where the water samples were taken.