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(pĭr'ənŏm`ətər), actinometeractinometer
, instrument used to measure the heating power of radiation. Actinometers are used chiefly in meteorology to measure solar radiation as transmitted directly by the sun, scattered by the atmosphere, or reflected by the earth.
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 used to measure the total radiation incident on a surface.



an instrument for measuring the total and scattered solar radiation incident on a horizontal surface. To measure just scattered radiation, a screen is used to shade the instrument from direct sun rays.

Figure 1. lanishevskii pyranometer (external view)

In the USSR the pyranometer designed by lu. D. lanishevskii (see Figure 1) is extensively used. The radiation detector in a lanishevskii pyranometer is a thermopile consisting of series-connected manganin and constantan strips. The even-numbered junctions of the thermopile are covered with carbon black, and the odd-numbered with magnesia alba. Solar radiation is absorbed to a greater extent by the carbon black than by the magnesia. For this reason, a temperature difference arises between the junctions, and a thermoelectric current proportional to the incident radiation is generated. This current is measured by a galvanometer. A glass cap protects the thermopile from the effects of atmospheric infrared radiation, wind, and precipitation. In order to obtain the absolute values of the radiation, pyranometer is checked against an absolute pyrheliometer.


lanishevskii, lu. D. Aktinometricheskie pribory i melody nabliudenii. Leningrad, 1957.



An instrument used to measure the combined intensity of incoming direct solar radiation and diffuse sky radiation; compares heating produced by the radiation on blackened metal strips with that produced by an electric current. Also known as solarimeter.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, an Onset silicon pyranometer (S-LIB-M003) was installed at the south facade to serve both as a backup for the global horizontal radiation measurement.
Ackerman, 2000: Identification of clear skies from broadband pyranometer measurements and calculation of downwelling shortwave cloud effects.
Average daily PAR values were determined by collecting solar radiation data outside the CSSF daily with a pyranometer (model Li-Cor PY 14226, Li-Cor, Lincoln, NE) located approximately 15 m north of the CSSF.
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The CMP 21 sensor is a secondary standard pyranometer from Kipp & Zonen that presents spectral range from 285 to 2800 nm and response time of five seconds.
Solar irradiance on the horizontal plane was measured using a LI-COR LI-200SZ Pyranometer Sensor (calibrated spectral range 4001100 nM) connected to a LI-1000 data logger (LI-COR, Inc.
In addition, incoming solar radiation in both shaded and full sun plots was monitored with a pyranometer with 400- to 1100-nm sensitivity (Model LI-200SZ, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE) set at 0.
Total daily solar radiation was measured with LI-200SB pyranometer sensors (LI-COR, Incorporated, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA).