Simultaneous determination of isoniazid, pyrazinamide
, rifampicin and acetylisoniazid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Three XDR isolates from 2 brothers (patients 10942 and 14666) and their neighbor (patient 8626) shared mutations conferring resistance to second-line drugs and to pyrazinamide
(Tables 1, 2), supporting evidence of direct transmission of this XDR strain.
Exclusion criteria were as follows: participants with a history of hepatitis B and C or other uncontrollable medical illness; pregnancy; history of allergy to isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide
; history of an acute infectious disease 4 weeks before treatment; and liver function test results higher than the upper limit of normal.
Keeping in view the attentiveness that pyrazine nucleus holds in the field of drug discovery and development, our continual search to discover newer antineoplastic agents directed us to aim this study to synthesize five transition metal complexes of well-known anti-mycobacterial agent, Pyrazinamide
and perform their physical and spectroscopic characterization through H-NMR, FTIR, PXRD and SEM and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of these complexes against human astrocytoma SNB-19, human Dukes' type C colorectal adenocarcinoma HCT-15, human Dukes' type D colorectal adenocarcinoma COLO-205 and human cervix carcinoma KB-3-1 cancer cell lines.
and taurine were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co.
However, higher adverse events were recorded with ethionamide and pyrazinamide
while fluoroquinolones had minimal toxicity.
EmbB gene mutations at codons 306, 406 and 497 are accountable for low and moderate levels of EMB resistance.5,6 Pyrazinamide
(PZA) is a structural analogue of nicotinamide.
Treatment of TBM consists of an intensive phase with 4 anti-TB drugs for 2 months (typically INH 800 mg/d, rifampin 450 mg/d, pyrazinamide
1000 mg/d, and ethambutol 800 mg/d) and a continuation phase with 2 drugs (INH and rifampin) for 7 to 10 additional months, resulting in a total treatment duration of 9 to 12 months.
The British Infection Society recommends initial treatment with at least fluoroquinolone, pyrazinamide
, ethionamide, or prothionamide and an injectable agent, while the World Health Organization recommends use of agents with good CNS penetration [5, 6].
had the highest mono-drug resistance pattern [Table 1].
Animal tuberculosis is also resistant to the antibiotic pyrazinamide
used to treat tuberculosis.
is an important drug in anti TB treatment because of its high in vivo sterilizing activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis particularly in acidic pH.