A temperature range beyond the common Fischer Assay (ISO 647) was chosen to cover the full succession in shale oil decomposition reactions from pyrobitumen
over asphaltenes and carboids up to methane formation.
Letters used only once Letters repeated Rows 1 & 2: 12 letters : 20 letters : QWERTYUIOP FARSIGHTEDLY (W3) GASTROHYSTERORRHAPHY (W2) ASDFGHJKL HYDROSULFITE (W3) SUPERULTRAFROSTIFIED (W2) TRIADELPHOUS (W3) Rows 1 & 3: 11 letters : 19 letters : QWERTYUIOP PYROBITUMEN
(W3) PYOPNEUMOPERITONEUM (W2) ZXCVBNM Rows 2 & 3: 7 letters : 12 letters : ASDFGHJKL SCHMALZ (W3) CASSABANANAS (W3) ZXCVBNM
Pyrobitumen is a sign that the sediments and any organic material they contained experienced temperatures from 200[degree] Celsius to 300[degree]C for an extended time.
That the rocks hosted these biomarkers, which should have been destroyed by the heat and pressure required to generate the pyrobitumen, "presented a bit of a conundrum," Rasmussen says.
Temperatures and visual criteria of different stages of transformation of initial oil shale and kerogen in an open anhydrous system Experiments Onset of Peak of End of liquid liquid liquid generation generation generation Observed Appearance Maximal Disappearance processes of pyrobitumen
movement of liquid only of translucent oily liquid Initial 450[degrees]C 472[degrees]C 500[degrees]C sample Krassava Krassava 440[degrees]C 465[degrees]C 490[degrees]C kerogen Experiments Onset of gas Peak of End of generation gas gas generation generation Observed Appearance Vigorous End of processes of gas gas gas bubbles bubbling bubbling Initial 480[degrees]C 490[degrees]C 510[degrees]C sample Krassava Krassava 470[degrees]C 485[degrees]C 505[degrees]C kerogen Table 3.
The shale char in the autoclave was taken out after cooling, dried, weighed and extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet extractor to get pyrobitumen
as the pyrolysis intermediate.
They were defined as carbon-rich hydrocarbons , as a substance between asphaltite and asphaltic pyrobitumen
 or as an asphaltic substance .
Turkish asphaltite is mostly classified between asphaltite and asphaltic pyrobitumen
with respond to thermal maturation.
Sirnak deposits have been described as asphaltic pyrobitumen
associated with mineral matter.
Silopi asphaltite is classified as a substance between asphaltite and asphaltic pyrobitumen
, whereas Sirnak asphaltite as asphaltic pyrobitumen
associated with mineral matter [2, 4-6].
At 550 K kerogen undergoes thermal degradation yielding volatiles and pyrobitumen
(at 456-h heating, 9 and 18%, respectively) .
Depending on their extent, the formation may end up as natural asphalts, asphaltites or asphaltic pyrobitumen