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A temperature range beyond the common Fischer Assay (ISO 647) was chosen to cover the full succession in shale oil decomposition reactions from pyrobitumen over asphaltenes and carboids up to methane formation.
The organic fluid (n-decane) is expected to be preferentially attracted to the hydrophobic component (organic matter such as kerogen, bitumen, pyrobitumen, and dead oil [69]) of the shale matrix.
Letters used only once Letters repeated Rows 1 & 2: 12 letters : 20 letters : QWERTYUIOP FARSIGHTEDLY (W3) GASTROHYSTERORRHAPHY (W2) ASDFGHJKL HYDROSULFITE (W3) SUPERULTRAFROSTIFIED (W2) TRIADELPHOUS (W3) Rows 1 & 3: 11 letters : 19 letters : QWERTYUIOP PYROBITUMEN (W3) PYOPNEUMOPERITONEUM (W2) ZXCVBNM Rows 2 & 3: 7 letters : 12 letters : ASDFGHJKL SCHMALZ (W3) CASSABANANAS (W3) ZXCVBNM
For one thing, the shale--which had been laid down as sediments about 2.7 billion years ago--contained tiny particles of pyrobitumen, coal-like remnants of oil droplets that had solidified as the sediment layers cooked.
0810 Australia): arborescent branchings of subhedral medium-bright native copper crystals shot all through masses of a glistening bright black stuff that at first glance made me think of iron-rich sphalerite but that actually is "coal" ("pyrobitumen" as the labels were calling it).
By comparing with the typical laser Raman spectra of carbonaceous bitumen and pyrobitumen reported by Liu et al.
Temperatures and visual criteria of different stages of transformation of initial oil shale and kerogen in an open anhydrous system Experiments Onset of Peak of End of liquid liquid liquid generation generation generation Observed Appearance Maximal Disappearance processes of pyrobitumen movement of liquid only of translucent oily liquid Initial 450[degrees]C 472[degrees]C 500[degrees]C sample Krassava Krassava 440[degrees]C 465[degrees]C 490[degrees]C kerogen Experiments Onset of gas Peak of End of generation gas gas generation generation Observed Appearance Vigorous End of processes of gas gas gas bubbles bubbling bubbling Initial 480[degrees]C 490[degrees]C 510[degrees]C sample Krassava Krassava 470[degrees]C 485[degrees]C 505[degrees]C kerogen Table 3.
The solid bitumen and associated gases may have mainly derived from Upper Permian Longtan Formation based on correlation of biomarkers and [delta][sup.13]C values of the source rocks and solid bitumen (pyrobitumen) in reservoirs [1-4].
The shale char in the autoclave was taken out after cooling, dried, weighed and extracted with dichloromethane in a Soxhlet extractor to get pyrobitumen as the pyrolysis intermediate.
The first type is solid pyrobitumen with dark-brown to black fluorescence under UV excitation that usually appears in intragranular dissolution pores of feldspar and fragmented grains (Figure 7(a)).
They were defined as carbon-rich hydrocarbons [15], as a substance between asphaltite and asphaltic pyrobitumen [4] or as an asphaltic substance [11].
Turkish asphaltite is mostly classified between asphaltite and asphaltic pyrobitumen with respond to thermal maturation.