Furthermore, the acidity and nutrient components of pyroligneous acids could modify the soil microenvironment by altering soil pH and providing source of substrates for microbial activity (Kadota and Niimi, 2004; Steiner et al., 2008).
The nutrients, enzymes and other organic components of pyroligneous acids could either enhance or decrease plants ability to metabolize the herbicide, which could result
Table 5: Effects of different mixtures of herbicides and pyroligneous acids on palatability, protein and amylase contents1
Paluma) fruits that had been submerged for five seconds in lime sulfur solution (SulFertilizantes) (1%), pyroligneous extract (Biopirol 7M[R]) (0.4%), or distilled water (control).
fraterculus were significantly stronger when insects were stimulated with lime sulfur solution and the pyroligneous extract than with rotenone or neem (H = 77.183; df = 4; P < 0.0001) (Fig.
Young unmated flies only showed stronger responses than old unmated ones for pyroligneous extract (H = 45.167; df = 9; P = 0.025).
The smoke from carbonization was cooled by the outside air when passing through the chimney occurs to produce pyroligneous
The second experiment consisted of application 1% IBA, wood ash (vine cuttings were dusted with IBA and wood ash), coconut water and pyroligneous acid.
Effects of IBA, coconut water and pyroligneous acid on rooting and mini tuber initiation in yam vine cuttings;