As mentioned earlier, the error in the signals may result from various noise sources, such as thermal noise, channel interference,

quantization error, and systemic sample phase mismatch.

Normalization of the

quantization error squared is expressed as

Two mode-dependent quantizers are set to balance the network congestion and

quantization error. A Markov process is used to model the time delay which is used to describe the quantization density as a function.

Second, we propose the parity checks strategy to eliminate

quantization error. Third, if the transmitted cipher image is not polluted by noises, the embedding rate achieves 2 bpp.

Disparity

quantization error is reduced using multi fitting algorithm to obtain the effective and consistency in disparity mapping.

In these cases, the NGN network can be useful for 3D modeling since their average

quantization error is below this range.

The

quantization error, or noise, is then defined as

Every peak of the spectrum corresponding to every incidence signal usually contains multiple consecutive nonzero amplitudes because of

quantization error of [PHI].

However, clipping error is enough low and then

quantization error is low, too.

The phase margin (colored part of the bit) is caused by several effects:

quantization error, shift due to oscillator tolerance, bit asymmetry due to the above mentioned physical layer components, and instability of the RX signal due to ringing on the bus lines caused by impedance mis-matches [4.] The first two effects are bit-rate dependent and the other two effects do not depend on the bit-rate.

Although the results showed that the detection accuracy of the SVI system was high, surpassing 94%, in order to make the system to be more rapid, general and useful, further studies need to do: not only reducing the

quantization error through increasing the resolution of seed images, but also lowering the amount of system calculation to save the computing time.

Therefore, the uncertainty of time measurement can be determined by

quantization error only.