Six components were considered: thermal noise ([e.sub.nTR]) of the transducer and load resistance ([e.sub.nRL] or [e.sub.nRH]), amplifier voltage noise [e.sub.n] voltage generated by current noise [i.sub.n] on positive and negative input ([e.sub.ncRL-] or [e.sub.ncRH-] and [e.sub.nc-]) and quantization noise
while Signal to Quantization Noise
Ratio (SQNR), representing the more indicative parameter for the quantizer performance assessment, is defined as [1-3]:
Allan variance method could be used to analyze the common five basic gyro noise terms, including angle random walk, rate random walk, bias instability, quantization noise
, and rate ramp.
More distinctively, transmitter and receiver non-linearities, phase noise, receiver quantization noise
, receiver Gaussian noise and channel estimation problems are also accounted.
To estimate the embedding distortion, quantization noise
([DELTA]) should be considered between the original and watermarked speech signals as follows:
In , a pragmatic approach is taken, in which a generalized version of the utility metric referred to as the impact metric is introduced to predict the MMSE increase in the estimation due to the quantization noise
. This allows modeling the effect of the quantization noise
resulting from changing the bit depth of each sensor signal's samples on the estimation performance.
Sigma-Delta modulator not only converts analog signal to digital signal but also can suppress the quantization noise
of bandwidth effectively.
Due to TDC finite resolution, it introduces quantization noise
on the output of synthesizer spectrum.
Due to the existence of quantization noise
, an additive noise model is used to represent the output of the quantization.
In  the quantization noise
and dynamic range are considered for compressive imaging (CI) systems design and evaluate the quantization depth requirements for CI, while the quantization error and the SFDR performance of CS are still undiscussed.
The algorithm is developed as a solution to the problem of minimizing the overall quantization noise
when an analog signal is pulse code modulated.
This is because the fractional-N operation in steady state requires fractional spur reduction circuits whose quantization noise
folds into the PLL spectrum via loop nonlinearities, demanding more significant design efforts to minimize the loop nonlinearities.