The team used specially designed topological pumps that helped modulate a specific parameter of the physical system in which the

quantum Hall effect was observed.

Zhang et al., "Room-temperature

quantum hall effect in graphene," Science, vol.

Wybourne, Powers of the Vandermonde determinant and the

quantum Hall effect, J.

Although remarkable progress has been made [19-22], a complete theory of the

quantum Hall effect is still missing.

Quantum Hall Effect (Fractional): Phenomenon occurring under extreme conditions where electrons combine to form small, fractionally charged particles.

The team plans on looking into the

quantum Hall effect to help identify non-Abelian anyons.

Peres, "Edge and surface states in the

quantum Hall effect in graphene," Physical Review B, vol.

Stormer, and P Kim, "Experimental observation of the

quantum Hall effect and Berry's phase in graphene," Nature, vol.

Coverage here encompasses the history of Si, MEMS, and NEMS, followed by discussion of crystallography, quantum mechanics, the band theory of solids, the silicon single crystal, photonics, the

quantum hall effect, and superconductivity.

The international standard for electrical resistance is provided by the

Quantum Hall Effect, a phenomenon whereby electrical properties in 2D materials can be determined based only on fundamental constants of nature.

Placing graphene samples in magnetic fields whose intensities the researchers ratcheted up, they saw the electrical resistance increasing in discrete steps, a phenomenon known as the

quantum Hall effect. Around the same time, a group led by Philip Kim of Columbia University made the same discovery after learning of Geim's tape-peeling technique.

Keywords: ac

quantum Hall effect; dc

quantum Hall effect; frequency dependences; multifrequency bridge; quadruple-series connections; single-series connections.