quantum computer


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quantum computer

[′kwän·təm kəm¦pyüd·ər]
(computer science)
A computer in which the time evolution of the state of the individual switching elements of the computer is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics.

quantum computer

(computer)
A type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems, such as a collection of atoms, to be in many different states at once. In theory, such superpositions allow the computer to perform many different computations simultaneously. This capability is combined with interference among the states to produce answers to some problems, such as factoring integers, much more rapidly than is possible with conventional computers. In practice, such machines have not yet been built due to their extreme sensitivity to noise.

Oxford University, Stanford University.

A quantum search algorithm for constraint satisfaction problems exhibits the phase transition for NP-complete problems.
References in periodicals archive ?
What makes a quantum computer different from a regular computer?
Quantum computers have the potential to solve certain types of calculations much more efficiently than todays technologies can.
A full-scale quantum computer, if one can be built, could solve certain problems that are currently intractable.
Therefore, this paper focuses first on analyzing these characteristics and afterwards on presenting the main hardware components required by a quantum computer, its hardware structure, the most popular technologies for implementing quantum computers, like the trapped ion technology, the one based on superconducting circuits, as well as other emerging technologies.
Catalyst can help ensure, for example, that when a quantum computer capable of breaking encryption exists, autonomous vehicles and power grid systems remain absolutely certain that their communications are secure, and that the commands and software updates they receive are being sent by a trusted source.
As development of quantum computers accelerates, experts predict that it will be eight to 10 years before a quantum machine is capable of cracking current encryption -- to increased awareness of the need to prepare now for the quantum threat, especially when security obligations are long-lived.
The problem of the quantum computer is not solved, however; a number of challenges remain.
Theoretically, the world's fastest-existing supercomputers would be shown down by a quantum computer that uses something in the range of 50 qubits, a threshold called quantum supremacy.
The team from the University of New South Wales say they have invented a new chip design based on a new type of quantum bit, the basic unit of information in a quantum computer, known as a qubit.
Now an international race is on to see who can create the first working quantum computer and to put it to beneficial uses.

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