quantum computer


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quantum computer

[′kwän·təm kəm¦pyüd·ər]
(computer science)
A computer in which the time evolution of the state of the individual switching elements of the computer is governed by the laws of quantum mechanics.

quantum computer

(computer)
A type of computer which uses the ability of quantum systems, such as a collection of atoms, to be in many different states at once. In theory, such superpositions allow the computer to perform many different computations simultaneously. This capability is combined with interference among the states to produce answers to some problems, such as factoring integers, much more rapidly than is possible with conventional computers. In practice, such machines have not yet been built due to their extreme sensitivity to noise.

Oxford University, Stanford University.

A quantum search algorithm for constraint satisfaction problems exhibits the phase transition for NP-complete problems.
References in periodicals archive ?
One of the greatest challenges in making a quantum computer viable is countering so-called quantum decoherence.
A decade later, in 1994, Bell Labs researcher Peter Shor published a paper showing that a theoretical quantum computer could factor prime numbers orders of magnitude faster than traditional computers.
As an example of how the quantum world operates differently from the classical one, Deffner compares the speed of a quantum computer to a particle moving through water versus honey.
Researchers at IBM's quantum research lab in Yorktown Heights, New York, have demonstrated that it's possible to model the behavior of a quantum computer beyond the 49-qubit benchmark by harnessing some clever mathematical techniques.
A quantum simulator is not a general-purpose quantum computer, but one that is designed to solve a particular equation or simulate a specific problem.
This makes the building of a quantum computer much more feasible, since it is based on the same manufacturing technology as today's computer industry," Mello said.
To date, the majority of quantum computers have been made
A quantum computer would be able to compute answers to many important problems that no ordinary computer could handle: designing new industrial materials, determining the optimal molecular structures of pharmaceutical drugs, monitoring patterns of activity in communication networks, searching databases and other yet-to-be discovered applications.
However, a large-scale quantum computer would need billions of quantum bits, therefore requiring billions of precisely aligned lasers, one for each ion.
To test whether their theories work, quantum computer research scientists may conduct experiments or work with experimental physicists.
An article from the Economist briefly summarizes the processes of high-speed quantum computing: Superposition breaks down bits into qubits - a conventional computer can work in one of 16 states at a time while the quantum computer can work with all 16 at once.
Users can create algorithms and run experiments on an IBM quantum processor located in this lab, learn about quantum computing through tutorials and simulations, and get inspired by the potential of a quantum computer.

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