According to equation (5), in the first half period a quantum of action
is destroyed, and in the second half one a quantum of action
In two earlier works, I was able to demonstrate that the quantum of action is embodied by the Klein bottle, and that, in fact, the connection is already implicit in the standard formulation of subatomic spin, though the relationship is well disguised (Rosen 2008a, 2008b).
Instead, physics stays "hard," maintains its objectivity, by treating the quantum of action like a "black box.
His initial break-through came as an insight that Planck's quantum of action should be incorporated into the explanation of the mysterious stability of Rutherford's atom.
He thought that by taking Planck's quantum of action more seriously than did its discoverer, one might find the key to unlock the dual mysteries of atomic stability and spectroscopic regularity.
The discovery of the quantum of action
meant, in the eyes of Bohr, that the physical description of the quantum world had to forsake some principles that had been so essential for the development of classical physics.
The phase of the contribution from a given path is the action S for that path in units of the quantum of action
For Bohr the quantum of action
was a site of intrinsic and irreducible uncertainty: improved technology or more powerful analysis could not touch it--could not turn it into certain knowledge--because of its innately probabilistic character.
Obviously, such concepts as macro-world, micro-world, mega-world, quantum of action
, light velocity, particle-wave dualism, temporal-similar and spatial-similar intervals, etc.
More precisely, the uncertainty principle states that the product of the uncertainties regarding position and momentum must be greater than or equal to Planck's quantum of action
divided by twice [pi] (pi): If x is position, p is momentum, [delta] is amount of indeterminacy, and ["h bar" sign] ("h bar") is Planck's constant divided by 2[pi] then the formula reads [delta]x[delta]p [greater than or equal to]h.
After it was found that the recession velocities for single and double galaxies appear to be quantized  then a new quantum of action
was also derived to yield [2, 3]:
For if the Quantum of Action
is assumed to be infinitely small, Quantum Physics become merged with classical Physics .