quantum state


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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
The first term on the right is the Newtonian gravitational acceleration, the second term is a radial acceleration due to space-time in the n-th quantum state, and the final term is acceleration due to DE.
Crepeau et al., "Teleporting an unknown quantum state via dual classical and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen channels," Physical Review Letters, vol.
Not everyone is convinced that actual quantum states are being generated in D-Wave calculations.
After comparing with formula (10) and formula (13), we can find out the difference between traditional Fourier transform and QFT: traditional method is unitary transformation on N-dimensional Euclidean space, QFT is unitary transformation on M x N-dimensional space, and computation method of traditional method is serial computation, but QFT is parallel computing; complex vector ([x.sub.0], [x.sub.1], ..., [x.sub.N-1]) has become one row of the quantum state matrix which facilitates high-speed processing.
In 1933 it was demonstrated by Freenberg [6] (see also [1, page 71]) that, in principle, a pure quantum state |[PSI]> can be reconstructed from the time-dependent coordinate probability density P(r,t) = [[absolute value of [PSI](r,t)].sup.2] and its derivative [partial derivative]P(r, t)/[partial derivative]t.
"Using light to transfer information in the quantum state is easier than doing it electrically.
An important question is related at the property of factorizability of quantum state. Is the factorizability tool an objective property?
"There are issues that need to be improved in these qubits so you can have a quantum state that lasts a very long time without, essentially, decaying," Lee said.
In a quantum system, information can be coded in the shared quantum state of particles that are “entangled”.
In the quantum mechanics, a probability to observe a neutron in nth quantum state with an energy [E.sub.n] at a height z equals the square of the modulus of its wave function |[[psi].sub.n](z)|[.sup.2] in this quantum state.
Teleportation involves the instantaneous transport of information describing the quantum state of sub-atomic particles.
Seth Lloyd, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, says every particle in the universe is moving from one quantum state to another - just like bits in a computer.

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