quantum state


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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
This exotic formation, which resembles the ordered structure of a solid crystal and provides proof of the droplets' quantum state, is far different than the lone whirlpool that would form in a regular liquid, such as briskly stirred cup of coffee.
In 2010, the University of Innsbruck in Austria produced the first system with 14 entangled qubits (entangled is the quantum state where two or more particles are linked to each other).
The nuclear spins of the 10 billion or so phosphorus ions used in this experiment were all placed in the same quantum state.
Using light to transfer information in the quantum state is easier than doing it electrically.
There are issues that need to be improved in these qubits so you can have a quantum state that lasts a very long time without, essentially, decaying," Lee said.
weight in the gravitational field (2)) in a quantum state with a definite energy (11) gives the following quantized values:
In a quantum system, information can be coded in the shared quantum state of particles that are “entangled”.
If a qubit comes into contact with its environment (for example, becomes entangled), then its quantum state will decay into a mixed state and the qubit is said to "decohere.
The quantum state of an atom is a description of such things as its energy, motion, magnetic field, and other physical properties.
To sum up, for a general evolution of a quantum state the state obtains a dynamical phase dependent on the energy and time as well as a geometric phase only dependent on the subjacent geometry of state space.
Teleportation involves the instantaneous transport of information describing the quantum state of sub-atomic particles.
Seth Lloyd, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, says every particle in the universe is moving from one quantum state to another - just like bits in a computer.

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