quantum state


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quantum state

[′kwän·təm ‚stāt]
(quantum mechanics)
The condition of a physical system as described by a wave function; the function may be simultaneously an eigenfunction of one or more quantum-mechanical operators; the eigenvalues are then the quantum numbers that label the state.

quantum state

A fundamental attribute of particles according to quantum mechanics. The quantum states are primarily x-y-z position, momentum, angular momentum, energy, spin and time.

Fermions
The shell structures of the atom are made up of fermion particles, which include the protons and neutrons in the nucleus and the electrons in the outer orbits. Fermions cannot share the same quantum state variables. For example, every electron traveling in electric current has a different quantum state than the electron next to it. The fermion was named after Italian physicist Enrico Fermi (1901-1954).

Bosons
Bosons are particles that can be in the same quantum state. Photons are examples of bosons, and lasers, masers and the superfluidity Helium derive their behavior as a result. The boson, pronounced "bow-son," was named after Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974). See quantum mechanics, electron, photon and Higgs boson.
References in periodicals archive ?
Not everyone is convinced that actual quantum states are being generated in D-Wave calculations.
A quantum state could be non-entangled if and only if it would be factorizable for every possible partition or choice of degrees of freedom, but this can never occur.
weight in the gravitational field (2)) in a quantum state with a definite energy (11) gives the following quantized values:
In a quantum system, information can be coded in the shared quantum state of particles that are “entangled”.
However, to re-create the quantum state of a particle, one has to measure the particle's quantum state with great accuracy.
The lowest quantum state of neutrons in such a system was observed in a recent experiment at the Institute Laue-Langevin [3].
Teleportation involves the instantaneous transport of information describing the quantum state of sub-atomic particles.
Seth Lloyd, a physicist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, says every particle in the universe is moving from one quantum state to another - just like bits in a computer.
If a quantum state is entangled, then, how much entanglement does it contain?
Accessing the results is equivalent to making a measurement, which disturbs the quantum state.
Controlling coherent quantum state evolution is possible by applying short voltage pulses to modify the energy states of the two charges bringing them into resonance.
Feed a quantum state to an observable operator and, unless that state happens to be an eigenstate of that operator, it returns (not the value of the corresponding observable in that state but) some other element of Hilbert space.

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