In particular, the structure of the manuscript is as follows: in Section 2, we show that, by properly superimposing two different radiating modes of a patch antenna, one of which exhibiting a phase singularity, we can change the location of this singularity and, thus, directly shape or rotate the radiation pattern of the radiating element
. More specifically, by varying the excitation amplitude of the two modes, one can change the shape of the radiation pattern, while by varying the relative phase shift one can rotate the radiation pattern at will.
[beta] is the wavenumber in the vacuum, d is the distance between each radiating element
, and [phi] is the observation angle.
Here the proposed array antenna is designed and simulated the divided network gives the power to each radiating element
This patterned material forms the radiating element
of a microstrip patch antenna.
The antenna comprises a microstrip line-fed radiating element
and a ground plane with a wide tapered-shaped slot and is fabricated on commercially available standard dielectric substrate material.
Supplied by 125 W power generator and considering 5 m length of radiating element
in 1 [m.sub.3] volume, the new antenna gave the below performances.
There is no ground metallization underneath the radiating element
for proper operation.
These additional devices allow to control the input signal of each radiating element
, thus offering the capabilities to electronically steer the radiated main beam.
Therefore the analysis of the proposed radiating element
, as shown in figure 1 using the technology of the patch antenna with rectangular slot, can use the concept of multi resonant cavities by dividing the geometry of the radiating element
in different surfaces and each one has a current distribution [??] which can lead to different radiation characteristics.
The simulated and measured field distributions, shown in Figure 2, give the electric field amplitude at 2.5 mm above the radiating element
. In all sub-figures, the highest field intensity (red) is found in the region where the PIFA elements are located, that is in the lower part of the figures.
Only a single radiating element
is used in most cases.