Karcher, 1994: Evidence of a long-term increase in tropospheric ozone from Pic du Midi data series: Consequences: Positive radiative forcing
The uncertainty in aerosol radiative forcing
has not fallen over the last 20 years despite substantial developments in model complexity, numerous model intercomparison projects, and enormous investments in global observing systems.
Rasch, "Source attribution of black carbon and its direct radiative forcing
in China," presented at the 19th Conference on Atmospheric Chemistry, 22-26 January 2017, Seattle, Washington.
A critical parameter for the derivation of radiative forcing
estimates is the particle size distribution that is set at emission (Mahowald et al.
The efficacy of different drivers of climate change to change the surface temperature from a radiative forcing
perturbation has been compared to C[O.
1), damages (Table 2), or time before tipping points are passed (Table 3), there remain substantial discrepancies between IAM forecasts even after eliminating differences in radiative forcing
Using a recently developed saturation-level concept, we demonstrate that the signs of the greenhouse effect and radiative forcing
are fundamentally dependent on vertical absorptivity and temperature profiles and will thus vary with wave number as well as seasonally.
It is not known to what extent mixing state needs to be resolved to accurately represent aerosol properties relevant to climate, specifically aerosol absorption and scattering, which govern direct radiative forcing
, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, which govern indirect radiative forcing
The research employed a group of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing
and Dynamics Experiment (CARDEX) mission, which was conducted over the northern Indian Ocean in 2012.
The amplitude of the twentieth-century warming depends primarily on the magnitude of the radiative forcing
, the climate sensitivity, and the efficiency of ocean heat uptake.
Hence, the radiative forcing
from contrail cirrus is larger than the temporally integrated radiative effects from aircraft CO, emissions.
Welton, 2016: Daytime cirrus cloud top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing
properties at a midlatitude site and their global consequence.