Radiosensitization


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Radiosensitization

 

the process of artificially increasing the radiosensitivity of biological objects; it is accompanied by intensification of the effects of ionizing radiation.

There are three principal methods of radiosensitization. The first involves a decrease in the protective mechanisms of the cells and organisms themselves. Such a decrease may be brought about by means of the chemical bonding of endogenic thiols, which is accompanied by an increase in the oxidation-reduction potential in the cells. The second method of radiosensitization involves suppression of reparation after radiation damage through the use of acriflavine, caffein, or chemical agents that disrupt oxidative phosphorylation in the cells. Hormonal suppression of the regeneration of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissue is also possible. The third principal method of radiosensitization involves the creation of unfavorable conditions for the raising and maintenance of irradiated objects, which often leads to aggravation of the effects of irradiation.

The elaboration of methods of radiosensitization is significant in increasing the effectiveness of radiation sterilization and the use of radiation to treat malignant neoplasms.

V. I. KOROGODIN

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Platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) have found a number of biomedical applications, e.g., in diagnostic mediators, medical implants, drug delivery vehicles and photothermal therapy compounds [8,9], as well as in enhanced radiosensitization [10], detection of cancer cells [11], bond strength between tooth structures [12] and bacterio-toxic effects [1].
Pharmacologic Ascorbate Reduces Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Toxicity and Enhances Tumor Radiosensitization in Pancreatic Cancer.
In the past decade, most of trials have used single agent Cisplatinor 5-fluorouracilfor radiosensitization during radiotherapy.
Targeting histone deacetylase 4/ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 impairs DNA repair for radiosensitization of hepatocellular carcinoma cells in mice.
Radiosensitization of p53 mutant cells by PD166285, a novel G(2) checkpoint abrogator.
Gemcitabine and dFdU concentrations in the tumour cells were also found to be high enough to allow radiosensitization.4
Zhang, "Curcumin, a dietary component, has anticancer, chemosensitization, and radiosensitization effects by down-regulating the MDM2 oncogene through the PI3K/mTOR/ETS2 pathway," Cancer Research, vol.
Durkacz, "Radiosensitization and DNA repair inhibition by the combined use of novel inhibitors of DNA-dependent protein kinase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1," Cancer Research, vol.
Linkous et al., "Autotaxin and LPA receptors represent potential molecular targets for the radiosensitization of murine glioma through effects on tumor vasculature," PLoS One, vol.
Moreover, QLT0267 did not reverse ILK-mediated radiosensitization of mutant FaDu cells (a human epithelial cell line from a squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx) that were transfected with a constitutively active form of ILK [31].
Mechanisms of disease: Radiosensitization by epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.