Deformed ice growth rate is defined as the change of mean thickness of ridged and rafted ice during unit time.
rafted ice is not deformed further in the model; (ii) cross-over thickness determines whether the undeformed ice is rafted or ridged.
We analysed also the cumulative deformation phenomena to characterize ridged and rafted ice distribution.
Polar bears clawed through ice with an average thickness of 41 cm (range, 22-75 cm) as they attempted to prey upon seals they could apparently detect (probably by smell) below the solid ice of the buckled or rafted ice floes (Table 1, Figs.
The maximum heights of four chambers that could be fully viewed and accurately measured below the rafted ice ranged from 23 to 35 cm.
The deformed ice is separated into two ice thickness categories, one for rafted ice and the other one for the ridged ice.
The daily growth rate of deformed ice (that is the increase of the mean thickness of ridged and rafted ice during a 24 h period) was only from 0.
It is usually about 25 metres wide but now is almost half a kilometre of rafted ice