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production of rainrain,
precipitation in liquid form. It consists of drops of water falling from clouds; if the drops are very small, they are collectively termed drizzle. Rain plays a key role in the hydrologic, or water, cycle in which moisture from the oceans evaporates, condenses into clouds,
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 by artificial means now generally disregarded, though it is probable that rainmaking hastens or increases rainfall from clouds suitable for natural rainfall. Interest in rainmaking has been spurred by factors including drought and the need for irrigation water. Until recent times it was thought that rain might be induced by explosions, updrafts from fires, or by giving the atmosphere a negative charge. Research during the 1930s showed that rain forms in warm clouds when larger drops of condensed water grow at the expense of smaller ones until they are big enough to fall; also that in cold clouds supercooled water below 5°F; (−15°C;) freezes into ice crystals that act as nuclei for snow. On this basis the American physical chemist Irving Langmuir and his associates carried on Project Cirrus from 1940 to 1952 to find ways to produce rain. Three methods resulted, including spraying water into warm clouds; dropping dry ice into cold clouds, where the dry ice freezes some water into ice crystals that act as natural nuclei for snow; and wafting silver iodide crystals or other similar crystals into a cold cloud from the ground or from an airplane over the cloud, with the crystals hastening the freezing of supercooled water between 27°F; (−2.8°C;) and 5°F;. Overseeding can dissipate a cloud. These techniques are only moderately successful; they cannot be relied upon in case of drought.


See Utah Water Research Laboratory, Development of Cold Cloud Seeding Technology for Use in Precipitation Management (1971); L. J. Battan, Cloud Physics and Cloud Seeding (1979).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/


Popular term applied to all activities designed to increase, through any artificial means, the amount of precipitation released from a cloud.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Even those who may feel that dropping rain on an enemy is better than dropping bombs must realise that rainmaking is only the first step.
(11) An essential element in these practices are the rainmaking ceremonies, which enhance "calling for rain" or "praying for rain" to curb climatic changes that bring about drought, hunger, and disease.
The experiments follow a memorandum of understanding signed between Jordan and Thailand on March 23 to benefit from Thai experience in rainmaking technology.
Firms are larger, ownership succession is at crisis levels, online advice is driving fees down and, due to a serious talent shortage, recruiting--especially young advisors with rainmaking talent--is nearly impossible.
As Murimbika (2006; 9) has observed, 'the more widespread a custom or belief, the higher the probability of its antiquity; some customs and beliefs would have been integral to rainmaking' before the appearance of Iron Age economies, and 'actual practices may vary because of context'.
Although rainmaking (a ritual process conducted by professional rainmakers to bring rain) was conducted by Bantu-speaking people long before Mapungubwe rose to prominence, this model implies that the Mapungubwe leadership altered the existing rainmaking system to enhance and entrench their legitimacy.
CPAs sometimes get bogged down in dealing with technical or administrative concerns and don't spend much energy on rainmaking. Firms even reward this behavior by encouraging younger staff to keep their heads down and focus on work in their cubicles rather than taking them along to client meetings.
The country boasts the world's largest rainmaking force, with 6,902 cloud-seeding artillery guns, 7,034 launchers for chemical-bearing rockets, more than 50 planes and 47,700 employees, according to a 2012 government tally.
It is used in photography and artificial rainmaking.
'Rainmaking' based on the original artwork, 'Rain Making At Malparingya', depicting body paint designs associated with rain making ceremonies at the site of Malparingya, slightly south east of Wilkinkarra (Lake Mackay).
"It's these non-billable activities - firm management, leadership development and rainmaking - that will ultimately determine their success and staying power," he said.
Chuck Schumer (D-N.Y.), no stranger to campaign rainmaking, that Citizens United is the court's worst decision since it upheld segregation in Plessy v.