External drag forces tear away the galaxy's gas, in a process known as ram-pressure stripping, leaving extended tentacles of trailing material.
JO201's transformation into a jellyfish galaxy has caused a brief increase in star formation due to the ram-pressure stripping process.
In the case of JO201, the central black hole becomes excited by the ram-pressure stripping and starts to throw out gas.
Right now, this ram-pressure stripping is operating tens of thousands of light-years from the galaxy's center, but it won't stop there.
While ram-pressure stripping may produce lenticular galaxies in massive clusters, it cannot satisfactorily explain why every cluster, big or small, contains an ancient, red elliptical galaxy at its hub.
If ram-pressure stripping only operates under certain circumstances, and stellar feedback has only limited range in larger galaxies, then only one alternative remains to explain giant, red-and-dead ellipticals: black holes.
In the process, though, they have discovered that the untimely death of galaxies through a phenomenon known as ram-pressure stripping is more common than previously thought.
On the contrary, what ram-pressure stripping does is bop the galaxy on the head and remove its gas very quickly-of the order of tens of millions of years-and astronomically speaking that's very fast."
Several loss mechanisms are possible, including ram-pressure stripping
by intracluster gas, gravitational interactions with other galaxies within the cluster, and gas outflows due to simultaneous supernova explosions triggered by the ram pressure or gravitational encounters.
"Ram-pressure stripping may represent one channel of transforming spiral galaxies....
These loner galaxies "must have been born without the benefit of ram-pressure stripping, [and] it makes no sense to think that the processes that make S0s in these less dense environments are not at work in clusters," he asserts.
ESO 137-001 is being robbed of its raw materials by a process called ram-pressure stripping
, which happens when an object moves at high speed through a liquid or gas.