Due to the fact that the tilting of the coordinate system by an angle relative to the surface has locally contracted the horizontal range step, the effective wavenumber in this case may be written as k cos [beta] and the WAPE in (13) now becomes
Besides, a slow increase in the standard deviation, as expected, is observed when the resolution is less than 100 m, which may be explained by the fact that the prediction errors will be obvious only when the resolution is much larger than the range step in the PE method.
Furthermore, the simulation results indicate that the prediction errors will be obvious only when the resolution of the DEM used is much larger than the range step in the PE method.
The Workhorse E-GEN battery-electric extended range step
van achieves 30 MPGe fuel efficiency, with an average range of 60 miles all-electric plus an additional 60 miles using the integrated BMW range extender, and reduces emissions by 75%.
Once the system is initiated with starting field, field at the next range step can be calculated from the previous one.
After reaching the desired range step using marching solution given in (22), the required coefficients, [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], will be extracted from the extended domain solution.
In our case, the prediction range step
corresponds to time between two subsequent samples of the radio signal envelope, which corresponds to the sampling period of the radio signal fading envelope.
Some advices are proposed to decrease the split error by studying its relationship with range step in .
where [F.sub.1] = exp [[increment of x](A + B)], and [u.sub.j] is the field at the jth (0 [less than or equal to] j [less than or equal to] [N.sub.x] - 1, [N.sub.x] is the horizontal grid points) range step, which gives the result using PE without ASE.
The ASE [R.sub.j] at the jth range step is shown as
Rusty Livock, Connect Assist deputy chief executive, said: "Over the last year we have been monitoring energy usage, the amount of waste generated and have successfully implemented a range steps
to minimise our environmental footprint."
The Eau Thermale Avene range steps
in to help with its range that contains natural Avene thermal spring water to protect and hydrate.