These systems include the ANS, limbic system, basal ganglia and two extrathalamic cortical modulatory systems, the raphe nuclei and locus ceruleus.
Epinephrine is the primary neurotransmitter for projection fibers from the raphe nuclei in the brainstem to the hypothalamus.
Morgane, "Horseradish peroxidase tracing of the lateral habenular-midbrain raphe nuclei
connections in the rat," Brain Research Bulletin, vol.
Regarding the brain regions involved in the reduction of sympathetic activity to the kidney, we can suggest that the medullary raphe nuclei are possible candidates, since they are serotonergic and participate in the modulation of sympathetic activity through projections to the ventrolateral medulla (1).
Functional mapping of the cardiorespiratory effects of dorsal and median raphe nuclei in the rat.
With BSE-L, the staining was finer and essentially confined to the habenular, geniculate, and dorsal nuclei of the thalamus; the lateral hypothalamus; the lacunosom moleculare layer of the hippocampus; the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus; and the raphe nuclei
of the brain stem.
From there they project into the LC and other areas such as the reticular formation and the raphe nuclei
, which play a role in REM sleep.
Subsequent investigations into the neural pathways of orexinergic neurons found that they project into brainstem areas such as the locus ceruleus, raphe nuclei
, and reticular formation that control various aspects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and wake.
The dorsal raphe nuclei
along with the locus ceruleus make up part of the central antinociceptive (anti-pain) network.