Raman V, Homer HT, Khan IA (2014) New and unusual forms of calcium oxalate raphide
crystals in the plant kingdom.
Starch granules and raphides
were identified on the surfaces of undecorated Lapita pottery sherds from the Kamgot site, New Ireland, c.
The four Pacific Araceae each have several types of raphide
. However, the types produced in the most abundance, 'whisker raphides
' (Loy et al.
Alternatively, in elongated cells, there may be two or more separate bundles of raphides
. As found in the tribe Spathicarpeae and in the subfamily Lemnoideae, articulated tubes (Ta) are encountered where the idioblastic raphide
cells are in contact and may attach end to end.
(SC = substomatal chamber; ST = stomata; M = mesophyll; AdE = adaxial epidermis; TAE = thicker abaxial epidermis; X = xylem; P = phloem; BPF = bundle of phloematic fibers; BXF = bundle of xylem fibers; R = raphides
; EAC = elongated adaxial cells; OC = ornamented cuticle).
They are categorized as sands, druses, styloids, raphides
, prisms, and crystal sands and exhibit various sizes and shapes .
Calcium oxalate crystals known as raphides
were not detected in C.
The defensive role holds up in some plant species (Ward et al., 1997; Molano-Flores, 2001; Ruiz et al., 2002; Jauregui-Zuniga and Moreno, 2004; Korth et al., 2006; Handley et al., 2007) albeit not in others (Xiang and Chen, 2004; Nagaoka et al., 2010) and some studies indicate that production of COC is increased even as a result of artificial herbivory, as reported for raphides
in Sida rhombifolia (Molano-Flores, 2001).
On stipule sections was possible to observe idioblasts with raphides
Some of these turtles eat large amounts of elephant-ear (Colocassia esculenta), which contains needle-like raphides
of oxalic acid monohydrate in its acidic sap.