Crowther A (2009) Morphometric analysis of calcium oxalate raphides
and assessment of their taxonomic value for archaeological microfossil studies.
(SC = substomatal chamber; ST = stomata; M = mesophyll; AdE = adaxial epidermis; TAE = thicker abaxial epidermis; X = xylem; P = phloem; BPF = bundle of phloematic fibers; BXF = bundle of xylem fibers; R = raphides
; EAC = elongated adaxial cells; OC = ornamented cuticle).
They include crystal sand, raphides
, druses and styloids.
A--Aligned colleters several in the stipules base; B--Three colleter aligned (C); D--Detail of stipular colleter (C); E--Dry Secretion (SE) in stipules (S); E--Stipule idioblast with raphides
(R) on stipule; F--Raphides on stipule with (R).
Systematic significance of cell inclusions in Haemodoraceae and allied families: silica bodies and tapetal raphides
. Annals of Botany 92: 571-580.
goyazana from other species of the genus based on the stomata; mesophyll; sclerenchyma sheaths shared by mid-vein vascular bundles; the occurrence of idioblasts and raphides
; and the presence of starch and tannin in the leaf blade.
Did Bobo nibble on the leaves of houseplants that contain calcium oxalate crystals (druses or raphides
) and secondary metabolites that may have done him in?
Authentication is difficult because of species similarity and frequent interspecific hybridisation and requires a combination of TLC and morphological (trichomes and raphides
) analysis (Wichtl 2004; Krajsek et al.
[6.] Sefa-Dedeh S and SE Kofi-Agyir Starch structure and some properties of cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium and Colocasia esculenta) starch and raphides
. Food Chemistry.
Each addresses a taphonomic issue with starch identification following cooking, movement of starch through sediments and the problems with the identification of raphides
associated with plant use.
bundles were observed as described for the family Palmae (PRYCHID & RUDALL, 1999).