In the arising flow with discontinuities, there are typical elements such as a rarefaction wave
, a contact discontinuity and a shock wave.
Given a state ([u.sub.-], [[rho].sub.-]) in the phase plane, the curve of backward rarefaction wave
The pressure in the rarefaction wave
when DW enters the conical part is reduced from 30 atm to the pressures close to [p.sub.CJ] (see Figure 3(b)).
Let ([u.sub.l], [v.sub.l]) and ([u.sub.r], [v.sub.r]) denote the states connected by a rarefaction wave
on the left and right sides, respectively.
The rarefaction wave
formed during this instantaneous negative pressure state also reduces the energy of the reflection wave.
The waveform of EA we performed in this study is condensation-rarefaction wave which is comprised of continuous alternation of condensation wave and rarefaction wave
. It is not easy to produce adaption unlike single-pulse wave, and it is often used in situations attempting to increase metabolism, promote blood circulation, and eliminate inflammatory edema.
or rarefaction wave
, which is wave of the first characteristic family,
Depending upon the spacing between the systems (between woofer or subwoofer driver centers), at some bass frequency the rarefaction wave
from one woofer or subwoofer will reach the other woofer or subwoofer just as it is generating a pressure wave.
And we know that the Riemann solutions of (1), (3), and (6) can be constructed by shock wave, rarefaction wave
, or the contact discontinuity connecting the two constant states ([u.sub.-], [[rho].sub.-]) and ([u.sub.+], [[rho].sub.+]).
Results are presented on Figure 3 where we observe propagation of the rarefaction wave
, while on Figure 4 we have propagation of the shock wave.
The spall strength for tensile stress generated when a rarefaction wave
travels through material is 2.1 GPa for the steel tube.
Similarly, by integrating (13), the rarefaction wave
curves in the quarter (r, u) phase plane, which are the state set that can be connected on the right by a rarefaction wave
, are as follows: