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a basic category of ancient Indian poetics. In a broad sense it denotes aesthetic enjoyment and perception. The treatise Natyasastra (approximately second to fourth centuries) formulated the ways to achieve aesthetic enjoyment during a theatrical performance. The Natyasastra defines erotic, comic, angry, heroic, and sorrowful rasa, as well as rasa of fear, revulsion, and wonder.

In his treatise Abhinavabharati the philosopher Abhinava-gupta (tenth to 11th centuries) formulated a doctrine that correlated rasa with the basic emotional complexes in the subconscious mind. These complexes generally manifest themselves as simple feelings, such as love, anger, or grief, but under the influence of an aesthetic object, which is incapable of evoking egoistic desires and emotions, the complexes are transformed into rasa and provide only enjoyment. According to Abhina-vagupta, a prerequisite of rasa is the involuntary identification of the aesthetic subject (the reader or viewer) with such aesthetic objects as the protagonists of a narrative poem or drama. The aesthetic object is then perceived independently of specific individuals and events. The chief means of arousing rasa is considered to be dhvani, and the concept of dhvani-rasa became a cardinal doctrine of medieval Indian poetics.


Istoriia estetiki: Pamiatniki mirovoi esteticheskoi mysli, vol. 1. Moscow, 1962.
Grintser, P. A. “Teoriia esteticheskogo vospriiatiia (“rasa”) v drevnein-diiskoi poetike.” Voprosy literatury, 1966, no. 2.
Anandavardkhana: Dkhvan’ialoka (“Svet dkhvani”). Translation from Sanskrit, introduction, and commentary by lu. A. Alikhanova. Moscow, 1974.
Gnoli, R. The Aesthetic Experience According to Abhinavagupta. Rome, 1956.


References in periodicals archive ?
The commercials, "Beginnings" and "Late Nights," have been developed by advertising agency RASAS and use the new SPIKE high-speed camera to capture the graceful movement of VIMTO being poured.
It also can refer to the nine rasas or nine moods that make up traditional Indian music.
Beginning with Bharata's Natyasastra dramaturgists posited the existence of (at least) eight major rasas corresponding to eight sthayibhavas or stable emotional states, which became classified as either "pleasant" or "unpleasant" (Kulkarni 1995: 281; Nagendra 1970a: 118).
AoUm Rasas is a masterpiece of human creativity given the artistic and technical qualities of the mosaic floor of its churches,Ao with these words JordanAAEs representative to the World Heritage Committee Moawiyah Ibrahim described this magnificent historic site, which was listed on the UNESCO World Heritage in 2004.
By use of the rasas, things that have been long seen appear as if new, like trees at the coming of spring.
This is not to say that other rasas could not enter: they not only could, but must.
All in all, it is a remarkable cinematic tour de force that expresses most major rasas of Indian aesthetic theory with spellbinding effect.
Thus, in Girish Karnad's "Flowers", there is a combination of rasas like Karuna (pathos, compassion), and its related "bhavas", "shoka" and "santapa"--grief and remorse.
The accompanying photographs of dancers expressing the eight rasas (two sets) are alone worth the price of the book.
Anandavardhana argues that the beauty of literary language depends crucially on its capacity to convey certain meaning-elements that are not explicitly stated--unstated vastus (narrative elements), alamkaras (figures of speech), and, most importantly, rasas (aestheticized emotions).
The Natya Sastra of Bharata enumerated eight classical moods or rasas that became identified as the evocative basis of artistic creations.
To assert it as a rasa involves an aesthetic paradox, for while the eight rasas are clearly understood as modifications(10) of the basic emotional constituents [bhava] of our mundane personality, the new rasa implies rather a suppression of those very constituents: it is a state untroubled by emotion of any sort.