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a basic category of ancient Indian poetics. In a broad sense it denotes aesthetic enjoyment and perception. The treatise Natyasastra (approximately second to fourth centuries) formulated the ways to achieve aesthetic enjoyment during a theatrical performance. The Natyasastra defines erotic, comic, angry, heroic, and sorrowful rasa, as well as rasa of fear, revulsion, and wonder.

In his treatise Abhinavabharati the philosopher Abhinava-gupta (tenth to 11th centuries) formulated a doctrine that correlated rasa with the basic emotional complexes in the subconscious mind. These complexes generally manifest themselves as simple feelings, such as love, anger, or grief, but under the influence of an aesthetic object, which is incapable of evoking egoistic desires and emotions, the complexes are transformed into rasa and provide only enjoyment. According to Abhina-vagupta, a prerequisite of rasa is the involuntary identification of the aesthetic subject (the reader or viewer) with such aesthetic objects as the protagonists of a narrative poem or drama. The aesthetic object is then perceived independently of specific individuals and events. The chief means of arousing rasa is considered to be dhvani, and the concept of dhvani-rasa became a cardinal doctrine of medieval Indian poetics.


Istoriia estetiki: Pamiatniki mirovoi esteticheskoi mysli, vol. 1. Moscow, 1962.
Grintser, P. A. “Teoriia esteticheskogo vospriiatiia (“rasa”) v drevnein-diiskoi poetike.” Voprosy literatury, 1966, no. 2.
Anandavardkhana: Dkhvan’ialoka (“Svet dkhvani”). Translation from Sanskrit, introduction, and commentary by lu. A. Alikhanova. Moscow, 1974.
Gnoli, R. The Aesthetic Experience According to Abhinavagupta. Rome, 1956.


References in periodicals archive ?
In her volume Tastes of the Divine, Michelle Voss Roberts constructs a Hindu-Christian theology of emotion using the Hindu theory of rasa.
The casual restaurant pitched its regional creative account in April, final-ly awarding its through-the- line communications business to Dubai-based RASAS after a five-way shootout.
Bhoja (eleventh century) perhaps carried this ideal to its extreme in proposing that all rasas are manifestations of a deeper emotional potential, a "higher-order Passion [srngara]" that "enables a person to experience the world richly," and therefore "may be taken as the origin of all other affective states, or rasas" (Pollock 1998: 126; see also Raghavan 1963: 463).
Rasa is the cumulative result of vibhava (stimulus), anubhava (involuntary reaction) and vyabhicharibhava (voluntary reaction).
Raudra rasa (anger) and disgust (bibhatsa rasa) are the two major rasas of equal prominence.
More perplexing are the varying translations of karuna, one of the major rasas.
Isidora Tasopoulou, market- ing manager for Mattel, added: "As a premier toy company, we believe that every language we speak must be of the most transparent and entertaining quality, and we found in Rasas a passionate support for the highest standards of Arabic, and knowledge of cultural in- sights and lingo.
Despite this, or perhaps because of it, the book works as an introduction to the practical aesthetics of rasa as well as any I've seen--scholarly or no.
In the book under review Cooper writes five chapters on Ray's films each chapter focusing on a distinct aspect of a group of films: the first chapter on rasa in Apu triology and Jalsaghar, the second on the issue of problems of the Hindu (Bengali) woman in Charulata, C'nare Baire.
Talking of the win, Rani El- Khatib, the agency's managing director, said:"This win means a lot to RASAS.
To assert it as a rasa involves an aesthetic paradox, for while the eight rasas are clearly understood as modifications(10) of the basic emotional constituents [bhava] of our mundane personality, the new rasa implies rather a suppression of those very constituents: it is a state untroubled by emotion of any sort.
The theory of rasa is attributed to Bharata, a sage-priest who may have lived about AD 500.