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the approval by a country’s supreme governing body of an international treaty concluded by its representative. As a rule, only the most important international treaties are subject to ratification. However, ratification is essential if it is stipulated in the treaty, if the parties’ intention to ratify the treaty clearly stems from the circumstances of its conclusion, or if the representative of the respective state signed the treaty “subject to ratification” or such a condition is directly stated in the credentials defining the representative’s powers.

The constitutions of most states assign the right of ratification of international treaties to the head of state (either with or without the sanction of the supreme legislative body) or directly to the supreme legislative body. For instance, the Constitution of the USSR grants the right of ratification to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or directly to the Supreme Soviet. The USSR law on the procedure for ratifying or denouncing international treaties, adopted Aug. 20, 1938, establishes the types of treaties concluded by the USSR that are subject to ratification. They include peace treaties, treaties on mutual defense against aggression, treaties on mutual nonaggression, and treaties during the conclusion of which the parties agree to subsequent ratification.

Ratification is recorded by each state in an instrument of ratification, which states that the treaty has been examined by the ratifying body, carries the text of the treaty itself, and declares that the treaty will be complied with by the given state. The required signatures are given, and a seal is affixed. When concluding bilateral international treaties, the parties exchange instruments of ratification; when a multilateral treaty is ratified, the contracting states deliver the instruments of ratification to another state designated as the depository.

References in periodicals archive ?
The amendments will take effect once they have been ratified by two-thirds of the States Parties of the Convention.
AT&T wireline employees represented by the CWA earlier ratified, on Aug.
The conventions were ratified with some reservations as demanded by ruling Maoists and the CPN-UML parties.
Brazil has not ratified the Additional Protocol, but it has concluded a bilateral pact with neighboring Argentina on inspections, ensuring a certain degree of transparency in its nuclear program, the sources said.
AaAa The CTBT is ratified by 149 countries but still depends on the stances of some countries which delay or refuse to ratify it namely the US, China, Egypt, Iran, Israel and Indonesia.
The New Democracy parliamentarians and New Alternative leader Gjorgi Orovcanec will challenge the Law on the Assembly, which was ratified on Monday, before the Constitutional Court.
University of Bristol The following programmes have been ratified for accreditation: BEng Engineering Design BEng Engineering Design with Study in Industry These programmes have been ratified to give membership of the lED and as partially meeting the requirements for CEng registration for six years from 2008.
Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, APHA Executive Director Georges Benjamin, MD, FACP, FACEP (E), strongly advocated that the United States join the 50 other nations that have already ratified the civil rights convention.
The charter will not be ratified without revising the wording, the transit protocol and the charter itself," he added.
Ratified by 15 countries in the region at press time, it bans all tobacco advertising--adios, Marlboro Man--as well as tobacco-company sponsorship of concerts and sports events.
Alaska Airlines flight attendants ratified a new four-year labor contract that the Assn.
Japan signed it in 1996 but has not ratified it in decade since then.