rationing

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rationing,

allotment of scarce supplies, usually by governmental decree, to provide equitable distribution. It may be employed also to conserve economic resources and to reinforce price and production controls. Originally used in community emergencies and in distributing supplies to sailors, rationing was first organized on a national scale in Great Britain during World War I, and during World War II it spread to most of the world. The methods used have varied according to the degree of rationing needed and to the products. Rationing methods include specific rationing, or allotment in terms of physical units; point rationing, the allotment of points (ration stamps) to be apportioned by the user among commodities of a given group; and value rationing, allotment in terms of expenditure. Rations may be allotted to individuals, institutions, and industrial users, or to communities, as in rural areas of undeveloped countries. In universal rationing, ration currency is issued to everyone in equal amounts; in differential rationing, the allocation is based on need and may vary according to occupation, age, sex, or health. In the so-called flow-back system, ration currency, usually distributed by the government to the consumer, moves upward from the consumer level to the manufacturer or processor as the product moves down. During World War II, rationing in the United States was administered by the Office of Price AdministrationOffice of Price Administration
(OPA), U.S. federal agency in World War II, established to prevent wartime inflation. The OPA issued (Apr., 1942) a general maximum-price regulation that made prices charged in Mar., 1942, the ceiling prices for most commodities.
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Bibliography

See W. A. Nielander, Wartime Food Rationing in the United States (1947).

References in periodicals archive ?
I then referred to the table on the right and added: "A good ration should contain vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) in the right proportions and the so-called amino acids.
After this order, the Public Distribution System (PDS) shopkeepers who provided the ration stopped giving ration to those whose Aadhaar card was not linked to their ration card.
The 24-hour c&e rations are a variant of the 24-hour gp ration.
Control ration (R1): clover hay plus concentrate feed mixture (CFM), R2 and R3: clover hay plus CFM in which 30% or 60 % from yellow corn and wheat bran was replaced with BBP.
To buy most rationed items, each person had to register at chosen shops, and was provided with a ration book containing coupons.
Ram Vilas Paswan, minister of consumer affairs, food and public distribution, said leakage of grains were prevalent in the UPA regime due to bogus ration cards and corruption in the department.
Stampede erupted when the announcement was made that all ration sacks have been distributed.
According to the new system, 150 loaves of bread are allocated per citizen per month, which are registered on his ration card.
ACCORDING TO AN ARTICLE in the Ottawa Sun, the Canadian Combat Rations Program announced additions to the Individual Ration Pack this year.
For example, it was suggested in situations where advanced life support services are determined to provide minimal potential benefit, the ACA could deny payment and in effect ration these services.
The MIWD has to ration water even though it has a contract with private firms FLO Water Resources Inc.
Spam became a favourite in 'Ration Book Britain', while rabbit and horse might appear on the weekly menu to augment the meagre meat rations Many shops opened for only two or three days a week.