rationing


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Related to rationing: Office of War Information

rationing,

allotment of scarce supplies, usually by governmental decree, to provide equitable distribution. It may be employed also to conserve economic resources and to reinforce price and production controls. Originally used in community emergencies and in distributing supplies to sailors, rationing was first organized on a national scale in Great Britain during World War I, and during World War II it spread to most of the world. The methods used have varied according to the degree of rationing needed and to the products. Rationing methods include specific rationing, or allotment in terms of physical units; point rationing, the allotment of points (ration stamps) to be apportioned by the user among commodities of a given group; and value rationing, allotment in terms of expenditure. Rations may be allotted to individuals, institutions, and industrial users, or to communities, as in rural areas of undeveloped countries. In universal rationing, ration currency is issued to everyone in equal amounts; in differential rationing, the allocation is based on need and may vary according to occupation, age, sex, or health. In the so-called flow-back system, ration currency, usually distributed by the government to the consumer, moves upward from the consumer level to the manufacturer or processor as the product moves down. During World War II, rationing in the United States was administered by the Office of Price AdministrationOffice of Price Administration
(OPA), U.S. federal agency in World War II, established to prevent wartime inflation. The OPA issued (Apr., 1942) a general maximum-price regulation that made prices charged in Mar., 1942, the ceiling prices for most commodities.
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Bibliography

See W. A. Nielander, Wartime Food Rationing in the United States (1947).

References in periodicals archive ?
Jahangiri admitted that some economic experts and businesses are against rationing, arguing that it would lead to more government interference in the country's markets.
Some statistics suggest that rationing actually improved the health of British people.
Gareth Thomas, managing director of Wilmington Healthcare UK, said: "Our research suggests that rationing is already widespread within the NHS for a variety of services and treatments, and with budgets under increasing strain, it is likely that more patients will be subject to restrictions in future."
Nenita Paule, a mother of six, recounted the ways her family coped with the rationing scheme, including giving up bathing just to have water to drink.
Not surprisingly, the literature regarding implicit rationing has primarily emerged from the discipline of medicine (Ayres, 1996; Hurst et al., 2006; Perneger, Martin, & Bovier, 2002; Strech, Persad, Marchmann, & Danis, 2009; Strech, Synofzik, & Marckmann, 2008).
Water rationing is also in effect in Pavia and San Miguel towns, which are both covered by the MIWD.
Rationing has always been present in the American health care
The director of the Safe Staffing Healthy Workplaces (SSHW) Unit, Lisa Skeet, says its work with 12 DHBs shows care rationing is occurring in the majority of wards in which care capacity demand management (CCDM) is operating.
A third source of confusion is the idea that rationing is always by quantity: a certain amount of this and so much of that.
POOR diets filled with junk and convenience foods are leading to diets that are worse than during war-time rationing and the return of conditions such as scurvy, experts have warned.