In addition, Earthworks in the form of dam construction and trench fillings play a role, Also raw humus
is to be deducted.
Humus cover consists of the forest floor, humus or raw humus and peat horizons.
However, instead of gley-podzols and peaty podzols, podzolic gley-soils with oligotrophic raw humus were formed (Table 3).
In the topsoil moder changes into raw humus (Orm) and in the sour A-horizon As eluviation begins by podzolization: AsEp (not so clearly visible in the photo).
In the more sandy topsoil we note only weak BrownEarth formation but we see very clearly the process of podzolization (with raw humus in the Or, and strong bleaching of the Ep).
They do not become effective in warmer humid regions, because of the lack of raw humus.
Stocks of SOC were estimated for two soil layers: (1) the epipedon (EP, topsoil or humus cover), which consists of the forest floor and/or humus, raw humus, and peat (histic) horizons, and (2) soil cover (SC, or solum) as a whole, whose depth extends from the surface to the unchanged parent material or the C horizon.
Of this (1) 42% is in stabilized humus, 40% in unstable raw humus material, and 18% in forest floor and shallow peats, and (2) 75% of it is situated in the biologically active epipedon and 25% in the subsoil.
This term is used when different classical soil horizons (organic, humus, raw humus
, peat) are connected into one soil layer.