rayon


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rayon,

synthetic fibers made from cellulosecellulose,
chief constituent of the cell walls of plants. Chemically, it is a carbohydrate that is a high molecular weight polysaccharide. Raw cotton is composed of 91% pure cellulose; other important natural sources are flax, hemp, jute, straw, and wood.
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 or textiles woven from such fibers; more rayon is manufactured than any other synthetic fiber. The name was adopted (1924), in preference to "artificial silk," by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce and various commercial associations. As early as 1665 the English naturalist Robert Hooke had suggested the possibility of making artificial silk, but the first artificial textile fiber was produced in 1884 by a French scientist, Hilaire de Chardonnet, and was manufactured by him in 1889. Unpopular at first because it was too lustrous and laundered poorly, it has been steadily improved. Cellulose, originally from cotton linters but now chiefly from wood pulp, washed, bleached, and pressed into sheets, is dissolved by chemicals, then forced under pressure through minute holes in a metal cap (spinneret), emerging as filaments that unite to form one continuous strand solidified by passage through a suitable liquid or warm air. The spinning solution may be forced through a larger orifice or slit to produce a monofilament, a ribbon, or a sheet. Filaments are doubled and twisted into smooth, silklike yarns or cut into staple lengths and spun. Spun rayon can be treated to simulate wool, linen, or cotton. There are four methods of manufacturing rayon, using different materials and processes. In the nitrocellulose process developed by Chardonnet, no longer of commercial importance, cellulose is treated with nitric and sulfuric acids. In the viscose processviscose process
, method widely used for the commercial preparation of rayon. Cellulose, prepared from either wood pulp or, less commonly, cotton linters, is treated with sodium hydroxide (an alkali) and then with carbon disulfide, the resulting product being a substance called
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 discovered in 1892, it is treated with carbon disulfide, then dissolved in caustic soda, forced through a spinneret, and hardened in sulfuric acid. Viscose rayon is the most important type commercially, being used in most kinds of wearing apparel, furniture fabric, and carpets. For cuprammonium rayon, the cellulose is dissolved in copper oxide and ammonia, forced through holes larger than the intended diameter, then, by a process known as stretch spinning, is elongated and twisted under tension to yield a very fine, strong yarn used for sheer fabrics and hosiery. Rayon produced by these three methods is classified as regenerated, since the final product, like the original material, is cellulose. The fourth type, saponified acetate rayon, originated in England in 1918, is an acetate derivative of cellulose made by steeping cellulose in acetic acid, then treating it with acetic anhydride. Acetate rayon is more resistant to stains and creasing, is plasticized by heat, and requires special dyes, thus allowing two-tone effects with a single dye when acetate is combined with other fibers. An acetate filler is used to make shatterproof glass.

rayon

[′rā‚än]
(textiles)
A fiber made from regenerated cellulose by the viscose or cuprammonium process.

rayon

Continuous-filament yarn composed of regenerated cellulose; similar in chemical structure to natural cellulose fiber but contains shorter polymer units; usually made by the viscose process.

rayon

1. any of a number of textile fibres made from wood pulp or other forms of cellulose
2. any fabric made from such a fibre
References in periodicals archive ?
- Myrza-Naiman On Eki-Bel Aiyl aimak of Nookat rayon.- On Eki-Moinok On Eki-Bel Aiyl Aimak of Nookat rayon.
The purchase price represents premiums ranging from 2.15 percent to the closing price of Mitsubishi Rayon on the Tokyo Stock Exchange on Monday to 65.22 percent over the average closing price for the six months from Aug.
Consumption of rayon yarns has tended to decline as consumers both in the country and abroad have turned to cotton yarns.
Although they are manufactured fibers, rayon, modal and lyocell are not considered synthetic.
The joint venture will be capitalized at 50 million yen and owned 80 percent by Toli with the remainder held by Mitsubishi Rayon.
"The original rayons used cotton waste fibers, but the industry found they just weren't able to compete economically with wood pulp," he says.
TEPCO also plans to sell 10,000 tons of gas a year to Mitsubishi Rayon and the two companies are expected to sign formal contracts by the end of this month, the officials said.
Mitsubishi Rayon said it submitted a request on the venture to the Chinese government in August 2000 and obtained approval in November this year.
Modal is made on the same kind of system as viscose rayon. Lyocell/Tencel and Modal Rayon have certain features in common.
In 1926, at the suggestion of a New York commission house, Love tried weaving a cotton bedspread fabric with a rayon filling.
There is good demand for viscose fibre (rayon yarn) in Pakistan, despite of the reason that its yarn is 10% higher in price, than cotton yarn.
A chemist at the University of California at Davis reports that some polyester-cotton-blend clothing can burn "up to 25 percent faster' than clothing made either from pure synthetics such as polyester or from pure "cellulosic' fibers such as cotton or rayon. "Lightweight polyester-cotton blends, in certain apparel uses, are very dangerous,' says researcher Howard L.