That means a rule concerning either an instrument, such as B (the monetary base) or i (the nominal federal funds rate), or a nominal control variable, such as M (any monetary aggregate), P (some measure of the price level), or Py (a measure of nominal income or spending), rather than a real variable
like real output, the unemployment rate, or the velocity of money.
Without having an impact on real variable
, in an open economy with flexible exchange rates, the nominal exchange rate changes as appropriate.
Since both of the last two series evidently are uniformly and absolutely convergent with respect to the real variable
u, they can be integrated term by term, so that finally it easily follows
Moreover, any attempt to use monetary policy to control the behavior of a real variable
like unemployment in a systematic, predictable way would cause the assumed structural equations of these models to change in unpredictable ways.
The one real variable
is Democratic crossover," DeCluitt said, pointing to a busy race for sheriff that could draw local voters of every political stripe into the GOP primary.
the system AX=b in fact is real linear system with n--unknown real variable
where the vector b is real one of the most important iterative method to solve linear system is Jacobi Atkinson , K.
Appendices supply background on logic, real variable
theory, set theory, algebraic structures, and the axiom of choice and its implications.
Other books concentrate exclusively on the step-by-step but this one finds the real variable
-- emotional thinking.
The real variable
in the calculation is the gross rental income, because the quality of the leases and the tenants can have a dramatic impact on the regularity of the gross income.
The differential should be pretty steady, and the real variable
in the cost of the oil is based upon what is happening to the "spot" price of oil, much more so than in shopping around from one supplier to another in an effort to save a penny or two per gallon.
That is, equilibria in which each real variable
(including real cash balances) may take different values across the different seasons, but the seasonal values must be the same across the different years.
But that does not adequately take into account the one real variable
in business--the changing customer.