The main aim of this study is to assess the recovery of the forest ecosystem in 15-year-old (midterm) hybrid aspen plantations on a reclaimed oil shale quarry.
Repeated monitoring of the main forest ecosystem components (tree growth, soil properties and understory plant cover) was carried out to describe ecosystem recovery on a reclaimed oil shale quarry.
The new entity will rework and put in to production reclaimed oil
and gas wells, with the first target area being the Eastern Texas.
* Illegal refining and subs-standard production of reclaimed oil
* Irrational use of reclaimed oil in lubricant production.
Contractors United used the reclaimed oil
as a fuel for its asphalt hot-mix plants.
The mean SLA (10.8 [m.sup.2] [kg.sup.-1]) of a 7-year-old black alder is comparable to the 12.3 [m.sup.2] [kg.sup.-1] found by Johansson  for young alders growing on abandoned farmland and the 13.3 [m.sup.2] [kg.sup.-1] calculated for a 20-year-old black alder growing on the reclaimed oil shale mining area .
Productivity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations on reclaimed oil shale mining detritus and mineral soils in relation to rhizosphere conditions.
The objectives of this study were: (i) to describe the early growth of hybrid aspen in two sites on reclaimed oil
shale opencast and compare it with the results from automorphic arable soils in two sites: in the same region with the quarry area and in South-Estonia; (ii) to study relations between tree growth, foliar and soil properties and define the most limiting growth factors for hybrid aspen in reclaimed quarry areas; (iii) to describe and compare the floristic diversity and vegetation structure in plantations established on reclaimed quarry and on abandoned agricultural land.
The present study was carried out in five planted stands: 4-yr-old and 27-yr-old black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.), 4-yr-old and 27-yr-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and 4-yr-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stands on reclaimed oil shale opencast mining spoil and Calcaric Regosols [21, 22] (Table 1).
Productivity of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) plantations established on reclaimed oil shale mining spoil and mineral soils in relation to rhizosphere conditions // Oil Shale.