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acknowledgment of the admission of new states into the international community by political action of states that are already members. Its derivation is found in the policy of the older European powers, which, after developing a system of binding diplomatic usage, refused to permit the admission of new states to the concert of nations unless the new power was properly qualified to assume its responsibilities under international law. Recognition is retroactive to the actual date of the establishment of the state or the formation of the new government, and all its acts from that time are valid.

Kinds of Recognition

Three kinds of recognition exist. Recognition of independence occurs when a new state is created, usually by a successful rebellion, and is accepted by members of the international community, either by a formal statement or by entering into diplomatic relations with the new state. Recognition of independence generally takes place after the new nation has demonstrated its ability to maintain itself; if a power recognizes an insurrectionary colony or dependency while the mother country is attempting to crush the rebellion, it is considered an offense to the dominant country that is being ousted. A second type of recognition may occur when a new form of government follows the establishment of a new political force in a country. A republic may be recognized as the successor of a monarchy, or a new president may be acknowledged after the overthrow of the previous incumbent. Recognition of belligerency, the third kind, was introduced into international law when that form of acknowledgment was given (1861) to the Confederate States of America by Great Britain. Such recognition grants the belligerents the rights and duties of a state as they concern war and commerce, but it does not grant the right to enter into official diplomatic relations with neutral nations. In recognizing belligerency, the nation offends the state against which the rebellion is directed. When recognition is de facto it involves a provisional acknowledgment that the government in power is exercising the function of sovereignty. Such recognition is revocable and implies a lesser degree of recognition than the formal recognition accorded de jure [Lat.,=as of right].

Use of Nonrecognition

The withholding of diplomatic recognition may be used in an attempt to force changes of policy on a new government, as illustrated by the nonrecognition of the Huerta (1913) and Obregón (1920) governments in Mexico and of the Communist government in China (1949) by the United States. The United States normally follows a policy known as the Stimson Doctrine (established by Secretary of State Henry Stimson in 1931), which states that the United States does not recognize territorial changes brought about by breach of international obligation. For this reason the United States did not recognize the Japanese-supported government in Manchukuo (1932) or the Italian government in Ethiopia (1936). This principle is implied in the Charter of the United Nations.


See H. Lauterpacht, Recognition in International Law (1947); T. C. Chen, The International Law of Recognition (1951); B. Bot, Nonrecognition and Treaty Relations (1968).


(computer science)
The act or process of identifying (or associating) an input with one of a set of possible known alternatives, as in character recognition and pattern recognition.


i. In imagery interpretation, the determination of type or class of object without a positive identification.
ii. The identification of an aircraft type by any means—visually, by flight plan correlation, by radar signature, etc.


formal acknowledgment of a government or of the independence of a country
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An option's tax attributes determine whether a deductible temporary difference arises when the company recognizes the option-related compensation expense on its financial statements.
8) For example, it may be appropriate to (1) recognize no benefit from a listed transaction (even where the company obtains a should-prevail opinion), (2) fully or partially reserve a tax position where the principal purpose of the position is the avoidance of tax, or (3) fully recognize a position arising in the ordinary course of business that is supported only by a more-likely-than-not level of confidence.
and Levi-Strauss), local governments, and other institutions across the country to recognize unmarried couples for purposes of a wide array of benefits and privileges.
Despite these limitations, the movement on both the federal and state levels to recognize surviving partners of gay men and lesbians "is hugely significant," says Sean Cahill, director of the Policy Institute of the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force.
367(b)-3(c)(3) to include the E&P amount (if any) rather than to recognize their realized gain on the section 367(b) exchange.
The Mill Manager of the Year award recognizes the mill manager who has best demonstrated outstanding leadership, management, and organizational skills leading to improved results at the facility for which he or she is responsible.
You may recognize forfeitures as they occur or estimate them at grant date, adjusting them later if actual forfeitures differ from estimates.
However, on an item-by-item basis, S recognizes $15 of Sec.
When a holder exercises options the issuer transfers a portion of paid-in capital to its outstanding stock account, but does not recognize any additional compensation cost.
Generally, a donor will not recognize any income on the transfer of a net gift.
person that transfers stock or securities in a domestic or foreign corporation to a foreign corporation generally does not recognize gain under section 367(a) if, immediately after the transfer, such transferor owns (3) less than five percent (by vote or value) of the stock of the transferee foreign corporation.