Remembering

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Remembering

 

an element or an independent form of human activity in which particular aspects of an impending act of reproduction are formed. Together with retention and reproduction, remembering is one of the basic components of memory. The problem of remembering was first dealt with systematically by Plato. The first experimental study of remembering was undertaken by the German psychologist H. Ebbinghaus (1885) within the framework of the associationist school of psychology. The inadequacy of the concept of remembering as a mechanical imprinting and an associative linking of traces was, however, demonstrated by the German school of psychology of G. Muller (1850–1934). Remembering occurs in accordance with the meaningful organization of material and, as a rule, is involved in the solution of an actual problem (B. V. Zeigarnik, 1927). The works of the Soviet psychologists A. N. Leont’ev, P. I. Zinchenko, and A. A. Smirnov have shown that the development of specifically human social and historical forms of memory is associated with the transition from “direct” to indirect modes of remembering and with the perfection of the means of remembering and their interiorization, by virtue of which human memory acquires a voluntary and conscious character. The study of remembering has received clinical application in the diagnosis of localized brain damage and in psychiatry.

REFERENCES

Leont’ev, A. N. Razvitie pamiati. Moscow, 1931.
Blonskii, P. P. Pamiat’ imyshlenie. Moscow-Leningrad, 1935.
Smirnov, A. A. Problemy psikhologii pamiati. Moscow, 1966.
Zeigarnik, B. V. Vvedenie v patopsikhologiiu. Moscow, 1966.
Lurüa, A. R. Vysshie korkovye funktsii cheloveka i ikh narusheniia pri lokal’ nykh porazheniiakh mozga, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969.

A. A. PUZYREI

References in classic literature ?
But the scout, who had placed his chin in his hand, with an expression of cold indifference, gradually suffered his rigid features to relax, until, as verse succeeded verse, he felt his iron nature subdued, while his recollection was carried back to boyhood, when his ears had been accustomed to listen to similar sounds of praise, in the settlements of the colony.
To all appearance, they were a quiet, honest, well-meaning race of people, cherishing no malice against individuals or the public for the wrong which had been done them; or if, at their own fireside, they transmitted from father to child any hostile recollection of the wizard's fate and their lost patrimony, it was never acted upon, nor openly expressed.
The merchants -- Pingree,Phillips, Shepard, Upton, Kimball, Bertram, Hunt -- these and many other names, which had such classic familiarity for my ear six months ago, -- these men of traffic, who seemed to occupy so important a position in the world -- how little time has it required to disconnect me from them all, not merely in act, but recollection It is with an effort that I recall the figures and appellations of these few.
All the stories of ghosts and goblins that he had heard in the afternoon now came crowding upon his recollection.
From my earliest recollection, I date the en- tertainment of a deep conviction that slavery would not always be able to hold me within its foul em- brace; and in the darkest hours of my career in slav- ery, this living word of faith and spirit of hope de- parted not from me, but remained like ministering angels to cheer me through the gloom.
A large debt of gratitude was owing here; but the intercourse of the last seven years, the equal footing and perfect unreserve which had soon followed Isabella's marriage, on their being left to each other, was yet a dearer, tenderer recollection.
but the tears which recollection called forth as they entered the house were soon dried away.
Some disappointment was felt, and perhaps a little indignation also, when it became known that Silas Marner, on being questioned by the Squire and the parson, had retained no other recollection of the pedlar than that he had called at his door, but had not entered his house, having turned away at once when Silas, holding the door ajar, had said that he wanted nothing.
True, its walls resembled those of any other room--I am not speaking of that; the point is that the recollection of them seems to haunt my mind with sadness.
From herself to Jane-- from Jane to Bingley, her thoughts were in a line which soon brought to her recollection that Mr.
To be left to write about it is not, perhaps, the most enviable fate; but the point is that this impression resumes in its intensity the whole recollection of days and days of desperately dangerous weather.
She was assisted, however, by that perfect indifference and apparent unconsciousness, among the only three of her own friends in the secret of the past, which seemed almost to deny any recollection of it.