0 0 3 0 3 Balsam fir 1 0 2 3 6 Black cherry 1 0 0 0 1 Red maple 0 0 15 8 24 Red spruce
0 0 1 3 5 Sugar maple 0 0 4 2 6 Tamarack 0 0 0 1 2 White ash 0 0 0 0 1 White birch 1 0 1 1 3 Yellow birch 1 0 13 5 20 Non commercial NA NA NA NA 26 6-10 American beech 0 0 2 1 3 Aspen spp.
For example, applications of our map showing the locations of the northern hardwoods would allow land managers to better identify areas to avoid prescribed burning (used to promote or maintain oak stands) or identify areas to "release" understory red spruce
as management actions favoring CNFS [5, 23, 28, 76].
Prior to the 19th Century, there were over 500,000 acres (200,000 hectares) of high elevation red spruce
forests in West Virginia.
Following the path measurements of the individual radii, each was first cross-dated into a within-seam floating chronology and then each floating chronology was matched against the regional red spruce
Some of the park's trees, which include red spruce
(left), hemlock, and yellow buckeye, are more than 150 feet tall and 4 to 6 feet across.
University of Vermont researchers were the first to notice extensive die-offs of red spruce
at high elevations.
(Picea rubens Sarg.) and the endemic Fraser fir (Abies fraseri (Pursh) Poir.) are the characteristic tree species of the spruce-fir forests (nomenclature follows Radford et al., 1968).
glauca) spruce along the Maine coast, where it occurs with greater density in red spruce
than in white spruce forests (Morse 1976, 1993; J.
(Picea rubra), red pine (Pinus resinosa), red oak (Quercus rubra), and red maple (A.
Studies by the Park Service have shown abnormally high levels of heavy metals in red spruce
trees, and stream acidification is proving toxic to fish, amphibians, and other underwater creatures.
Nova Scotia falls in the Acadian forest region, and Hosie designates the main tree species as Red Spruce
, Balsam Fir, maple and Yellow Birch.
* North American forests are not suffering substantially from acid pollutants, according to the report, "with the possible and notable exception of high-elevation red spruce
in the northern Appalachians." Data collected on these high-elevation stands over the past two years indicate that acid-mediated soil changes are fostering nutrient imbalances and a general weakening of red spruce
-- changes similar to those now held responsible for European forest declines (SN: 7/22/89, p.56).