At this time, it's still unclear how water microdroplets can serve as adequate replacements for reducing agents
. One possibility is that transforming the water into microdroplets greatly increases its surface area, creating the opportunity for a strong electric field to form at the air-water interface, which may promote the formation of gold nanoparticles and nanowires.
Moreover, chitosan has been used as a reducing agent
in the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles.
Very stable colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles were obtained, by chemical reduction at a low temperature in a semicontinuous mode using CMC as a stabilizer/reducing agent and sodium borohydride as reducing agent
. The characterization of the nanoparticles was carried out by TEM, UVVIS, and XRD.
Spherical and pseudo-spherical silver nanoparticles of 7, 29, and 89 nm were prepared by employing the aqueous chemical reduction method using gallic acid as a reducing agent
and stabilizing agent .
chemically reduce other substances.
The formal reaction partner is a hydrosilane, an organosilicon compound that acts as a reducing agent
. The reaction product into which the C[O.sub.2] is converted can be collected easily in the form of methanol in the last step of the reaction series.
such as sodium bisulfite can be used to remove residual dis.
The agency said these strategies must address driver warning systems and inducement, system durability and reliability, and reducing agent
quality and availability.
Relatively small volumes of the reducing agent
are called for (generally 50 ppm), so polymer manufacturers could conceivably use the modification without significant changes in their physical plant.
Various concentrations (i.e., 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 3.0 phr) of reducing agent
(NaN[O.sub.2]) were each introduced into the latex to reduce the molecular weight of ENR molecules.
A system developed by Germany's SiCon GmbH is able to recover plastics in the form of what the company calls "shredder granules" and "shredder fibers." According to a write-up prepared by SiCon, "The most preferred utilization of shredder granules is [their] injection into a blast furnace as a reducing agent
to replace heavy oil or pulverized coal."
"Nitrogen oxide storage catalytic converters [NSC] or selective catalytic reduction [SCR] systems based on the 'AdBlue' reducing agent
are being used to break down the nitrogen oxide.