CT imaging was critical in this case to map the morphology of the fracture, allowing surgical planning for the reduction sequence
. Thus percutaneous screw placement was possible and the zone of injury was protected.
This study by the Hospital for Special Surgery confirms our protocol at Duke; specifically, a MARS (metal artifact reduction sequence
) MRI of an all-metal hip implant is the most accurate study for early detection of adverse metal reaction.
This "reduction sequence
" is typically conceptualised as consisting of four main stages: procurement of raw material, flake production, secondary working (retouch) and artefact use and discard (Flenniken and White 1985:131, Holdaway and Stern 2004:206-208).
This suggests that core rotation was more often part of the core reduction sequence
at Mount Alexina 1 than at Booroola 3.
Although the specific details of the reduction sequence
may differ from one feature to another at Giv'at Kipod, several common trajectories for the production of bifacial tools at the site can be discerned.
A recently excavated archaeological assemblage from McKinley Bay, Northwest Territories, provides a record of intensive Nuvugarmiut whale bone tool manufacture, which can be used to reconstruct a reduction sequence
. Bowhead bone reduction at McKinley Bay focused on ribs, which were transversely worked into large sections.
Applying a detailed debitage classification system to define closely the reduction sequence
at Jebel Humeima, Coinman reattributes the assemblage to Akhmarian, replacing an earlier Aurignacian attribution, obviously a major realignment, given the dichotomy usually perceived between the two.
If the subtree can be shifted in the new context, O(lg N) time is also consumed in reconstructing its trailing reduction sequence
This paper constructs a reduction sequence
model for north Australian points from the eastern Victoria River region, and identifies a single continuum linking unifacial and bifacial point forms, with some divergence from this single reduction trajectory dependent upon artefact size.
They can be used in "expert mode," where the user specifies the reduction steps, or in "black box mode," where the reduction sequence
is determined automatically.
Clarkson (Chapter 3) demonstrates that reduction intensity provides a parsimonious explanation of scraper form; and that the typology of scraper classes does not effectively describe the actual reduction sequence
. No surprises here; previous usewear studies have shown that form and assumed function are decoupled.
The reduction sequence
which created the assemblage is modeled and the rigidity of the various trajectories comprising the reduction sequence
is assessed by the degree to which blanks for "aimed at" forms crossed between trajectories.