Under windless conditions, sun position and magnetic field may provide a common reference direction
In this paper, the absolute direction is used as the reference direction
to calculate landmarks' orientation.
w] defines the reference direction
for attitude specified by aerodynamic angles.
where f is the crystal chain axis orientation factor and [chi] is the angle between the chain axis and the reference direction
Adjustment of the optical reference direction
in the optical orientation of the funnel-web spider Agelena labyrinthica Clerck.
08, is assigned to govern the weight of the error term in the reference direction
The distal cues must be used to compute some reference direction
that is relatively independent of location.
DF systems measure the true angle from the reference direction
(typically the center of the antenna baseline) to the direction from which the signal arrives.
The British and American engineers working on this project eventually realized that the source of this problem was that the reference direction
in the British paper industry is the opposite of the reference direction
in the American paper industry .
The slight deviation of the long axis of the polar diagram ([approximately equal to]10[degrees]) from the reference direction
(90[degrees]) might have its origin in the non-ideal flow of the melt in the form filling phase.
Here [phi] is the angle between a plane normal (pole) and a reference direction
and [beta] is the rotation angle of the pole about the reference direction
The reference direction
(M in [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED]) was chosen to be the extrusion direction for the starting tapes.