Moreover, the AFFOSMC has less tracking error while tracking the reference direction
where [phi] is the angle between the reference direction
(the stretching direction) and the normal direction of the lamellae.
Suppose that 0[degrees] is a reference direction
to calculate the correlation coefficients with all the other directions, element spacing is 10 m, and operating frequency is 5 MHz.
Under windless conditions, sun position and magnetic field may provide a common reference direction
The current is located at the distance r from the center of the device and angle [alpha] from the reference direction
. TheAMR sensors are placed at the distance R from the center of the device and angle [[beta].sub.i] from the reference direction
In this paper, the absolute direction is used as the reference direction
to calculate landmarks' orientation.
To get this, we must to determine the real solar time (it is created by splitting the time interval between two successive upper culminations of the sun for 24 hours), declination (one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, which gives the angular sun distance from the celestial equator and depends on the date of calculation), sun altitude and azimuth (angle applied to the meridian clockwise--the horizontal angular distance from a reference direction
The resulting vector [[[??]].sub.w] defines the reference direction
for attitude specified by aerodynamic angles.
Adjustment of the optical reference direction
in the optical orientation of the funnel-web spider Agelena labyrinthica Clerck.
The reference direction
, [[delta].sub.p], is the tangent to the path detected by computer vision.
Magnetic north is your reference direction
; all others remain constant in relation to it.
The distal cues must be used to compute some reference direction
that is relatively independent of location.