reference speed

reference speed

The target speed by airline pilots on short finals. This is referred to as VREF + 5, VREF + 10, or VREF + 15 on various stages of the approach. VREF is factored on the stalling speed (1.3 × VSO) and so varies with aircraft weight. VSO stands for stalling speed with the undercarriage and the flaps down.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
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The difference between the motor speed [[omega].sub.r] and the reference speed [[omega].sub.ref] is passed through PI speed controller to give the reference torque [T*.sub.e].
In response to another experiment case and in order to demonstrate the adaptation of the proposed FO-MRAS controller, a square wave reference speed trajectory was created.
Also the estimated speed is compared with the reference speed for speed control in a sensorless way.
On the second step the coordinates of the point [X.sub.d] are calculated considering given trajectory in the horizontal plane, the [[phi].sub.d] and the value of [v.sub.d], which is reference speed of MR movement.
Here, the CC function is implemented using a simple PID controller with error signal e(t) = [v.sub.s] - v(t), where [v.sub.s] is the reference speed (set as a constant for CC) and v(t) is the HDV's instantaneous speed.
The speed variation of the rotor is determined from the reference speed and applied to the controller as input.
Typically, the pump efficiency curve normally is given as a function of water flow rate under a reference speed by manufacturers as the same as the pump head and shaft power curves.
After the deceleration rate is selected, the reference speed of the aircraft can be obtained.
We added the maximum allowable increment for potential windshear, 20 knots, to our 125-knot reference speed. The field was calling winds 010/9G19.

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