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any of various processes for separating impurities from crude or semifinished materials. It includes the finer processes of metallurgy, the fractional distillation of petroleum into its commercial products, and the purifying of cane, beet, and maple sugar and many other substances. The nature of the refining process depends on such factors as the type of material involved, the value of the end product, and the degree of purity necessary. The purification of a metal is based upon physical or chemical differences between the metal and its accompanying impurities, including density, melting point, magnetic properties, and reaction to certain chemicals. It may be accomplished by a continuation of a process used in separating the metal from its ore. Electrolysiselectrolysis
, passage of an electric current through a conducting solution or molten salt that is decomposed in the process. The Electrolytic Process

The electrolytic process requires that an electrolyte, an ionized solution or molten metallic salt, complete an
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 is much used in the refining of various metals (e.g., copper); the open hearth process (see steelsteel,
alloy of iron, carbon, and small proportions of other elements. Iron contains impurities in the form of silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, and manganese; steelmaking involves the removal of these impurities, known as slag, and the addition of desirable alloying elements.
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) and the basic oxygen processbasic oxygen process,
method of producing steel from a charge consisting mostly of pig iron. The charge is placed in a furnace similar to the one used in the Bessemer process of steelmaking except that pure oxygen instead of air is blown into the charge to oxidize the impurities
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 are used in the refining of iron; the amalgamation processamalgamation process
, in particular, a method to extract gold and silver from ores. The ore is crushed and treated with mercury, in which the metal dissolves. The amalgam is heated and the mercury evaporates, leaving pure gold or silver.
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 and the cyanide processcyanide process
or cyanidation,
method for extracting gold from its ore. The ore is first finely ground and may be concentrated by flotation; if it contains certain impurities, it may be roasted.
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 are chemical means of metal refining.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The report also covers complete details of major players operating in the refining sector in South East Asia region and provides in depth analysis of the latest industry updates.
The partners hold the same shareholding in the trading joint venture as in ADNOC Refining.
According to the International Energy Agency (IEA's) latest World Outlook Projection, India's refining capacity is likely to grow by two-thirds in the next 25 years.
IMO 2020 is expected to have a profound impact on the global refining and transport fuels industry.
Further value will be created from the new global trading joint venture, which, once established, will be an international exporter of ADNOC Refining's products, with export volumes equivalent to approximately 70 per cent of throughput.
"We commend the strategic partnerships between Adnoc, and OMV in refining and trading.
The minister valued the continuation of the World Refining Association to choose the Kingdom of Bahrain to host the series of conferences and exhibitions of the Middle East Refining Technology for the third time on the land of the kingdom.
third-party export Trans Niger Pipeline (TNP) and optimize the full value of our produced crude through in-country refining and providing products for the domestic market.'
Roxas Holdings, on the other hand, owns 100 percent of shares of Central Azucarera Don Pedro, which operates a massive sugar cane milling and refining plant in Nasugbu, Batangas.
Weak refining margins dinged first-quarter results for Exxon Mobil Corp and Chevron Corp, though Chevron's oil production gains outshone its larger rival, which has struggled to turn operations around after recent missteps.
Along with the upturn in the oil refining margins, which refer to profits they take by refining crude oil, domestic refiners are eager to expand their business domains to diversify their portfolios.
Engaged in the business of oil refining, petroleum marketing, and petroleum logistics, Byco has emerged as one of the leading firms in Pakistan's petroleum industry.