From the velocity relationship, the change of distance, the change of angle, and the conservation of wave energy flux are formulated as the equations to calculate the refraction coefficient, ie:
In which H and are [H.sub.o] wave height and initial wave height respectively, [K.sub.s] is shoaling coefficient, and [K.sub.r] is refraction coefficient.
The numerical solution of the wave equations in this study is solved by discretizing the wave equation (6) which also comprises the shoaling and refraction coefficients of (7), (8), and (9).
They enable to determine heterogeneity of atmospheric refraction fields (refraction coefficient, propagation speed) of GPS electromagnetic waves which can be used to investigate and simulate propagation of microwave radiation in the atmosphere.
Atmospheric refraction coefficient N is derived from the following equation: