The Columbia River Valley has recently been proposed as a Pleistocene refugium
for terrestrial organisms (Steele and Storfer 2006), and this may be the case for P.
Anatolia is suggested as a glacial refugium
, playing an important role in the establishment of fauna of nonrefugial northern areas during the Holocene (Taberlet et al.
Paleoclimatic speculations suggested by new data on the location of the spruce refugium
in Alaska during the last glaciation.
Such differentiation would require isolation from other subspecies, arguing that the features characterizing the Haida Gwaii black bear developed in a glacial refugium
on or near this archipelago.
1) The number of snails in the experimental chambers was impacted by the presence of a refugium
but not so in the controls.
Key words: Hyrcanian refugium
, Iran, Middle East, molecular taxonomy, phylogeography, Zagros Mts.
Temperatures of one snake in a refugium
during February was 5.4[degrees]C (Cunningham, 1966), while recorded body temperatures for three snakes collected in May were 30.2, 31.2, and 27.0[degrees]C (Brattstrom, 1965).
Only one documented instance of a potential plant refugium
maintained by animals is known: that of the termite created soils around Mulga (Acacia aneura) logs (Tongway et at, 1989).
After more than 30 years of carefully monitoring the wild population, biologists are scrambling to establish a refugium
for this small fish.
The best-known and best-supported refugium
in the north is Beringia, which extended from eastern Siberia across the Bering and Chukchi Seas to Alaska and the Yukon.
The area around Lake Valencia has been postulated to be a Pleistocene refugium
based on anoline lizards (Vanzolini and Williams 1970), plants (Prance 1973), and butterflies (Brown et al.