Regurgitation


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Related to Regurgitation: mitral regurgitation, Tricuspid regurgitation

regurgitation

[ri‚gər·jə′tā·shən]
(medicine)
Reverse circulation of blood in the heart due to defective functioning of the valves.
(physiology)
Bringing back into the mouth undigested food from the stomach.

Regurgitation

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Many of the early materialization mediums were accused of fraud, with the explanation that the ectoplasm that they produced was, in fact, physical material that they had swallowed and then regurgitated. This theory was first propounded in 1922 by the Society for Psychical Research (SPR) in the case of Eva C.. The medium Eva Carriere was visiting London and being investigated by the SPR. Professor Charles Richet said, “They [the SPR] admit that the only possible trickery is regurgitation. But what is meant by that? How can masses of mobile substance, organized as hands, faces, and drawings, be made to emerge from the oesophagus or the stomach? … How, when the medium’s hands are tied and held, could papers be unfolded, put away and made to pass through a veil?"

At a séance on November 26, 1913, conducted by Baron von Schrenck-Notzing, a strong emetic was given to Eva to answer the charge that the ectoplasm was actually regurgitated material. It satisfied the researchers that she had swallowed nothing. A number of experiments took place at Dr. Gustav Geley’s laboratories in 1917 and 1918. Nearly 150 scientists and others witnessed the sittings.

To state that the medium had “obviously regurgitated material” became a typical dismissal of a medium’s performance by a researcher either too lazy to fully investigate or too skeptical to accept what was being proven before his eyes. However, there certainly were fraudulent mediums who did swallow cheesecloth and similar material and attempt to regurgitate it to create an ectoplasmic effect. One such was Helen Duncan, who was examined by the National Laboratory of Psychical Research. Following this, the Morning Post of July 14, 1931, carried an article claiming that Duncan had been caught out and exposed as a fraud. Researcher Harry Price called her “one of the cleverest frauds in the history of Spiritualism.” It transpired that the “ectoplasm” was in fact a composition of wood pulp and egg white, which she was able to swallow and then regurgitate. On July 17, the Light carried a followup article also branding her as a fraud and carrying a confession from her husband.

Sources:

Fodor, Nandor: Encyclopedia of Psychic Science. London: Arthurs Press, 1933
The International Survivalist Society: http://www.survivalafterdeath.org
Psychic News, #3754, June 19, 2004. Stansted, Essex
Leonard, Sue (ed): Quest For the Unknown—Life Beyond Death. Pleasantville: Reader’s Digest, 1992
References in periodicals archive ?
Both the American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) recommend open-heart surgery to repair or replace the mitral valve for patients who suffer from moderate (Grade 3+) to severe (Grade 4+) mitral regurgitation.
To learn more about mitral regurgitation click here for an infographic.
While these data are being obtained, the decision to reinstitute cardiopulmonary bypass and undergo a second period of aortic cross-clamping in the quest for an 'echo-perfect' mitral valve repair, based on an IOTOE finding of 'mild' residual mitral regurgitation, is one that should only be made with a great deal of circumspection.
4,5) In fact, the hemodynamic changes observed in our patient behaved like an acute severe mitral regurgitation with decreased left atrial compliance resulting in increased left atrial pressure and subsequent development of pulmonary edema.
Tendyne reports that the device was implanted transapically without cardiopulmonary bypass, performed as intended by completely eliminating mitral regurgitation, and that the patient was released from the hospital on day 5.
They described two patients, one a 39-year-old man who underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement for combined mitral and aortic regurgitation and the other, a 23-year-old man with mitral regurgitation and a normally functioning congenitally BAV.
In a dilated heart with impaired systolic functions, functional mitral regurgitation could be seen even in the presence of structurally normal mitral apparatus.
Key clinical highlights included a 100 percent procedural success rate, reduction of mitral regurgitation to mild or less in all patients, brief procedure times, and two patients with 6-month echocardiographic follow up, both with stable mitral valve repairs and no mitral regurgitation.
The Mitra-Spacer System does not focus on the repair of various anatomical changes of the mitral valve but acts to fill the gap between the native leaflets, thus reducing the mitral regurgitation.
Cardiac physical examination revealed murmurs of mitral stenosis and regurgitation, a prominent a wave in the jugular venous pulse, and a loud pulmonic valvular closure sound.
A NEW non-surgical method, which is considered to be the only effective treatment for mitral regurgitation, a condition where the heart's mitral valve doesn't close tightly, allowing blood to flow backward in the heart, has been successfully applied for the first time in Cyprus, by a group of cardiac surgeons of the American Medical Centre/American Heart Institute.