If the change in the response ratio is greater than a change in the reinforcement ratio
, the value of a is greater than 1.
where: [E.sub.s]-modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement; [tau]-shear stress; [[rho].sub.f]-longitudinal FRP reinforcement ratio
in which [p.sub.w] is the web reinforcement ratio
for the tensile reinforcement [A.sub.st]/([b.sub.w]d), [p.sub.cw] is the web reinforcement ratio
for the compressive reinforcement [A.sub.sc]/([b.sub.w]d) and [[epsilon].sub.cs] is the design shrinkage strain of the concrete at the time the total or incremental deflection is required.
The increase of reinforcement ratio
values from [micro]=1.1% up to [micro]=2.3%, for the elements made of concrete class grade C20/25 concrete reduce the time of initiation of first crack from 200 till 100 days.
where [M.sub.a] is the acting moment in a cross-section, [[rho].sub.c.eff] is a ratio of the effective area in tension, and [[rho].sub.eq] is the equivalent reinforcement ratio
In addition, we can find that the ductility index increases as the reinforcement ratio
is reduced by comparing the results of B-GR-0-T and B-MS-0-T.
Keeping the reinforcement ratio
and 20 cm stirrup interval fixed, the change in abutment backwall cracking with the change in diameter and interval of horizontal crack-control reinforcement was evaluated.
 carried out triaxial unconsolidated undrained tests on coconut shell fiber-reinforced soft clay, and the tests results showed that 1% is the optimal fiber reinforcement ratio
, and the reinforcement effect is more obvious under high confining pressure.
In Beam B2, the stirrups were arranged at 250 mm centres, corresponding to a reinforcement ratio
It is well known that reinforced concrete strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity increases with increase in confining reinforcement ratio
. Thus concrete fabricated from low strength concrete and improved confinement will exhibit more ductility, therefore, suitable for use anywhere specially earthquake prone areas.
This paper presents results of 18 tests on one-way reinforced concrete slabs submitted to point loads, in which were varied the loading position (a), the slabs' width and the flexural reinforcement ratio
in the transverse direction ([[rho].sub.[gamma]]).
has no significant influence on the total strain in the initial two stages.