If the change in the response ratio is greater than a change in the

reinforcement ratio, the value of a is greater than 1.

where: [E.sub.s]-modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement; [tau]-shear stress; [[rho].sub.f]-longitudinal FRP

reinforcement ratio.

in which [p.sub.w] is the web

reinforcement ratio for the tensile reinforcement [A.sub.st]/([b.sub.w]d), [p.sub.cw] is the web

reinforcement ratio for the compressive reinforcement [A.sub.sc]/([b.sub.w]d) and [[epsilon].sub.cs] is the design shrinkage strain of the concrete at the time the total or incremental deflection is required.

The increase of

reinforcement ratio values from [micro]=1.1% up to [micro]=2.3%, for the elements made of concrete class grade C20/25 concrete reduce the time of initiation of first crack from 200 till 100 days.

where [M.sub.a] is the acting moment in a cross-section, [[rho].sub.c.eff] is a ratio of the effective area in tension, and [[rho].sub.eq] is the equivalent

reinforcement ratio.

In addition, we can find that the ductility index increases as the

reinforcement ratio is reduced by comparing the results of B-GR-0-T and B-MS-0-T.

Keeping the

reinforcement ratio and 20 cm stirrup interval fixed, the change in abutment backwall cracking with the change in diameter and interval of horizontal crack-control reinforcement was evaluated.

[29] carried out triaxial unconsolidated undrained tests on coconut shell fiber-reinforced soft clay, and the tests results showed that 1% is the optimal fiber

reinforcement ratio, and the reinforcement effect is more obvious under high confining pressure.

In Beam B2, the stirrups were arranged at 250 mm centres, corresponding to a

reinforcement ratio of 0.4%.

It is well known that reinforced concrete strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity increases with increase in confining

reinforcement ratio. Thus concrete fabricated from low strength concrete and improved confinement will exhibit more ductility, therefore, suitable for use anywhere specially earthquake prone areas.

This paper presents results of 18 tests on one-way reinforced concrete slabs submitted to point loads, in which were varied the loading position (a), the slabs' width and the flexural

reinforcement ratio in the transverse direction ([[rho].sub.[gamma]]).

Reinforcement ratio has no significant influence on the total strain in the initial two stages.