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the return of ill health after an apparent or partial recovery



a new exacerbation of a disease during remission after an apparent recovery. In the case of a latent chronic infection, for example, brucellosis, pneumonia, and erysipelas, a relapse may be caused by inadequate immunity, chilling, or the supervention of a secondary infection. It may also be caused by a faulty diet, for example, with colitis, or by the cyclical nature of the disease itself (malaria, relapsing fever). The pathogenic microflora of the body is usually activated as a result of a relapse. A repeated infection caused by the same microorganisms is called a reinfection.

The pathogenesis of a relapse of a noninfectious disease is caused by shock, for example, with eczema, by vascular disorders, by regular malignant growth, and by inadequate treatment, for example, by the incomplete removal of a tumor. The pathogenesis of a relapse is sometimes unknown, for example, with familial Mediterranean fever and schizophrenia.

The clinical symptoms of a relapse may resemble or differ from the onset of a disease as a result of both the nature of the disease and the prescribed treatment. A relapse is sometimes more severe than the first attack of a disease and is more difficult to treat, as in the case of a relapse of acute leukemia. A relapse may be accompanied by complications, for example, intestinal bleeding in typhoid. Relapses are common to some diseases, for example, chronic dysentery. Treatment and preventive methods for relapses are usually the same as for the original disease.


References in periodicals archive ?
The regimen remained constant since 1982, although the recommended duration was reduced to 1 year in 1998, (2) because relapse rates after MDT were widely reported to be low, about 0-1% among patients treated for 24 months or longer in routine programmes.
1 Secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement in DLBCL includes an isolated CNS relapse or CNS involvement with systemic disease.
Higher white blood cell (WBC) count at the time of diagnosis may have an increased risk of treatment failure and relapse with B-precursor ALL.
The average age at relapse was 50-5 [+ or -] 14-7 with a range of 25-76 years old.
Due to low frequency of relapse in this region antirelapse therapy is not indicated in routine however regular monitoring is needed to detect any alteration in the current status.
After a relapse, strive to use a person-centered, strength-based approach that supports the patient's commitment to change and self-determination.
Therefore in this study we attempted to examine the association between demographic variables, clinical parameters, relapse precipitants (or 'high risk' situations), coping strategies, self-efficacy, stressful life events and perceived social support, and relapse among patients with either alcohol or opioid dependence.
Negative life events significantly predicted relapse in all patients, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.
Among patients who were homozygous for the wild-type variant of Taq1 associated with increased expression of VDR, there also was a significant reduction in risk of relapse, again with an odds ratio of 0.
The published study showed that at 5 years, the relapse rate was 0.
Treatment had increased the speed with which her weakness resolved, but she continued to experience relapses.
Drug addiction is characterized by a recurrent pattern of drug taking, withdrawal, and relapse to drug taking.