The architecture in the kidney of all control rats demonstrated well preserved and kept intact normal histological components of the glomeruli, renal tubules
and interstitial tissues of both the cortex and the medulla (Fig.
They rely on osmosis to shift sodium and water between body compartments intracellular, extracellular, the plasma and renal tubules
NOX4 is primarily expressed in renal tubule
cells, and its upregulation indicates the degree of renal tubular injury in DKD .
Furthermore, we have demonstrated that although it did not reach statistical significance, proanthocyanidin administration also reduced renal tubule
In addition to its expression in the proximal renal tubule
, SGLT-1 is abundant in intestinal mucosa enterocytes, where it facilitates the absorption of dietary glucose.
In general, the cause of type IV RTA is either low levels of aldosterone or the impaired ability of the renal tubule
to respond to this hormone.
Then, we further corroborated evidence for apoptotic events by demonstrating increased expression of the proapoptotic protein Bax in renal tubule
epithelial cells and glomeruli after heart failure induction.
catla kidneys after exposure to BPA were necrosis, hypertrophy of glomerulus, degeneration and dissociation of renal tubules
and Bowman's capsule, proliferation in the renal tubule
and haemopoieatic tissue, shrinkage of glomerulus, pyknosis, dilated blood vessel, rupture of Bowman's capsule, and obliterated Bowman's space.
Urinary NAG activity was within the normal ranges in the healthy control groups and significantly increased over the upper reference limit in the groups of patients with normoalbuminuria, indicating the great importance of NAG in discovering the renal tubule
cells damage, especially at the early stage before the appearance of microalbuminuria .
Similarly, a number of changes such as, pycknosis, necrosis, disintegrated renal tubule
, vacuole, shrunk glomerulus etc were observed in the kidney exposed to both concentrations.
Epithelial cell necrosis in the renal tubule
was observed in the rats with hemorrhagic shock but without resuscitation (Figure 1(b)).
The abstract indicates what was studied (ethylene glycol toxicity), the important knowledge gap (whether narezode works in humans), what was found (narezode reduced metabolic acidosis and renal tubule
damage with no side effects), and what conclusions could be drawn from the results (narezode is effective and safe for emergency use).