However, it seems likely that a version of the perceptual fluency/attribution framework still offers the best hope for a comprehensive explanation for the mere exposure effect and its relationship to repetition priming
. Thus, in the next section, some initial guidance is provided on ways in which this framework might be extended/modified in light of the evidence presented in previous sections.
The lack of attention at encoding impairs performance on episodic memory tasks (Craik, Govoni, Naveh-Benjamin, & Anderson, 1996; Dannhauser, Walker, Stevens, Lee, Seal, & Shergill, 2005), but implicit memory, assessed by showing repetition priming
effects (faster and/or more accurate responses to repeated than to novel stimuli), is not automatic and requires attention at encoding.
This study was concerned primarily with repetition priming
effects, that is the situation in which prime and target are either identical or unrelated.
Of course, related probes are usually responded to more quickly than unrelated probes (i.e., repetition priming
Experiment 3 examines whether the inferred inhibition is the result of a self-inhibitory mechanism, using a repetition priming
Most important, repetition priming
was observed across the four target presentations in the prospective memory condition but not in the vigilance condition.
For example, Bruce and Young's model does not explain why a stimulus must be presented in the same sensory modality in order to produce repetition priming
(an advantage in processing a stimulus when it has been presented recently), whereas semantic priming (an advantage in processing a stimulus when a semantic-related stimulus has been presented recently) may be produced by using semantic-related stimuli in different sensory modalities (for a review of these data, see Valentine, Brennen, & Bredart, 1996).
has been demonstrated in several domains, including face recognition (Bruce & Valentine, 1985; Ellis, Young, Flude & Hay, 1987).
This is the 'repetition priming
' effect, which was first reported for word recognition (see, for example, Carr, Brown & Charalambous, 1989; Scarborough, Cortese & Scarborough, 1977), and has since been reported for the recognition of familiar objects (e.g.
Bruce & Valentine (1985) were the first to demonstrate repetition priming
effects with facial stimuli.
involves the facilitation of recognition of a previously see stimulus.
The phenomena of both semantic and repetition priming
have been demonstrated with respect to recognition of objects and faces, and explanations for such effects have been couched in similar terminology (e.g.